Intermediate incisions are considered necessary to pass a catheter tube from the head to the abdomen in ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunting via a frontal bur hole. However, an intermediate incision can sometimes become dehiscent, resulting in CSF leakage or infection of the shunt system in the early period after shunt implantation, particularly in infant patients. In this article, the authors describe a novel method of VP shunt insertion that does not require an intermediate incision. This nonintermediate-incision VP shunt procedure was performed in 3 infant patients with hydrocephalus and was not associated with any complications. This method can eliminate the intermediate incision, which is a disadvantage of VP shunt insertion via a frontal bur hole.
Shuji Hamauchi, Toshitaka Seki, Toru Sasamori, and Kiyohiro Houkin
Jangbo Lee, Kazutoshi Hida, Toshitaka Seki, and Yoshinobu Iwasaki
Jangbo Lee, Izumi Koyanagi, Kazutoshi Hida, Toshitaka Seki, Yoshinobu Iwasaki, and Kenji Mitsumori
Spinal cord edema is a rare radiological finding in chronic degenerative disorders of the spine. Between 1997 and 2001, the authors treated six patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy in whom postoperative spinal cord edema was demonstrated. The authors describe the radiological and clinical features of this unusual condition.
The six patients were all men, and ranged in age from 44 to 72 years. All patients presented with mild quadriparesis and underwent laminoplasty or anterior fusion. Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed marked spinal cord compression with intramedullary hyperintensity on T2-weighted sequences and spinal cord enhancement at the compression level after administration of Gd.
After surgery, spinal cord edema was observed in all patients; the spinal cord appeared swollen on the postoperative MR images. Preoperative and postoperative Gd-enhanced MR imaging demonstrated clear enhancement of the white matter at the compressed segment. Neurologically, five of six patients experienced good improvement of symptoms; however, the spinal cord edema as documented on follow-up MR imaging persisted for several months after surgery.
The radiological characterization of spinal cord edema was based on the reversible white matter lesion most likely caused by disturbed local venous circulation induced by chronic spinal cord compression. Such unusual MR findings in cervical spondylotic myelopathy should be differentiated from intramedullary spinal cord tumors, demyelinating disorders, or inflammatory processes.
Toshitaka Seki and Michael G. Fehlings
Although posttraumatic syringomyelia (PTS) develops in up to 30% of patients after spinal cord injury (SCI), the pathophysiology of this debilitating complication is incompletely understood. To provide greater insight into the mechanisms of this degenerative sequela of SCI, the authors developed and characterized a novel model of PTS.
The spinal cords of 64 female Wistar rats were injured by 35-g modified aneurysm clip compression at the level of T6–7. Kaolin (5 μl of 500 mg/ml solution) was then injected into the subarachnoid space rostral to the site of the injury to induce inflammatory arachnoiditis in 22 rats. Control groups received SCI alone (in 21 rats), kaolin injection alone (in 15 rats), or laminectomy and durotomy alone without injury (sham surgery in 6 rats).
The combination of SCI and subarachnoid kaolin injection resulted in a significantly greater syrinx formation and perilesional myelomalacia than SCI alone; SCI and kaolin injection significantly attenuated locomotor recovery and exacerbated neuropathic pain (mechanical allodynia) compared with SCI alone. We observed that combined SCI and kaolin injection significantly increased the number of terminal deoxytransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeled–positive cells at 7 days after injury (p < 0.05 compared with SCI alone) and resulted in a significantly greater extent of astrogliosis and macrophage/microglial-associated inflammation at the lesion (p < 0.05).
The combination of compressive/contusive SCI with induced arachnoiditis results in severe PTS and perilesional myelomalacia, which is associated with enhanced inflammation, astrogliosis, and apoptotic cell death. The development of delayed neurobehavioral deficits and neuropathic pain in this model accurately reflects the key pathological and clinical conditions of PTS in humans.
Kazutoshi Hida, Yoshinobu Iwasaki, Satoshi Ushikoshi, Shin Fujimoto, Toshitaka Seki, and Kazuo Miyasaka
Object. In this report, the authors describe five consecutive patients with cervical perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) that were successfully treated using a corpectomy performed via an anterior approach.
Methods. Five patients with cervical perimedullary AVF underwent corpectomy via an anterior approach. There were four women and one man who ranged in age from 34 to 62 years (median 55 years). Four patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage and one with intramedullary hemorrhage. All five AVFs were located on the anterior surface of the cervical spinal cord and fed by the anterior spinal artery. All patients underwent an anterior approach with 1.5- or two-level corpectomy, opening of the dura mater, and coagulation of the fistula. After dural closure, an iliac bone graft was inserted.
Four patients were treated by surgery alone and one patient by embolization and surgery. Postoperative angiography revealed complete disappearance of the AVF in all patients. Neurological status improved in two cases and stabilized in the other three. There were no surgery-related complications.
Conclusions. Safe and effective interruption of cervical AVFs can be accomplished by an anterior-approach corpectomy.
Shuji Hamauchi, Toshiya Osanai, Toshitaka Seki, Masahito Kawabori, Michinari Okamoto, Kazutoshi Hida, and Kiyohiro Houkin
The authors describe a novel method of observing blood flow in abnormal vessels with slow-motion video during surgical treatment of spinal arteriovenous shunts. The method is based on the use of superselective angiography with saline for visualizing abnormal vessels in bright field and commercially available high frame rate digital camera for recording slow-motion video.
Kazutoshi Hida, Hiroki Shirato, Toyohiko Isu, Toshitaka Seki, Rikiya Onimaru, Hidefumi Aoyama, Satoshi Ushikoshi, Kazuo Miyasaka, and Yoshinobu Iwasaki
Radiosurgical treatment of spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is becoming a practical therapeutic option as methodology improves, but no comparative study has yet been published on focal fractionated radiotherapy. The authors report their experience with conventional and hypofractionated radiotherapy for spinal AVM.
Candidates for this study were patients who experienced symptoms due to an intramedullary AVM but were ineligible for embolization or surgery. Of 21 patients with spinal AVMs, 10 cases in a 10-year period met this criterion. Angiography and contrast-enhanced computerized tomography scanning were used for treatment planning in all cases. Fractionated radiotherapy was performed using a linear accelerator, extracranial immobilization system, and frequent orthogonal linacographic verification. The starting radiation dose was 32 Gy in two, 36 Gy in three, and 40 Gy in two patients, in a regimen involving 1.8 to 2—Gy daily fractions; this was recently changed to a hypofractionation schedule of 30 Gy (in eight sessions) in one and 20 Gy (in four sessions) in two patients.
The follow-up period ranged from 26 to 124 months (median of 49 months). There were no hemorrhages nor any adverse reactions attributable to irradiation. Of the seven patients who consented to undergo follow-up angiography, the nidus size decreased in five, but complete obliteration did not occur in any patient.
Because no patient experienced adverse effects, the maximum tolerable radiation dose for the spinal cord associated with an AVM could not be identified, although it presumably is higher than those administered. The lack of rebleeding in patients in whom complete angiographic occlusion was absent suggests that the natural history of spinal AVMs may be less aggressive than previously reported.
Keisuke Takai, Toshiki Endo, Takao Yasuhara, Toshitaka Seki, Kei Watanabe, Yuki Tanaka, Ryu Kurokawa, Hideaki Kanaya, Fumiaki Honda, Takashi Itabashi, Osamu Ishikawa, Hidetoshi Murata, Takahiro Tanaka, Yusuke Nishimura, Kaoru Eguchi, Toshihiro Takami, Yusuke Watanabe, Takeo Nishida, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Tatsuya Ohtonari, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Takafumi Mitsuhara, Seishi Matsui, Hisaaki Uchikado, Gohsuke Hattori, Nobutaka Horie, Hitoshi Yamahata, and Makoto Taniguchi
Spinal arteriovenous shunts are rare vascular lesions and are classified into 4 types (types I–IV). Due to rapid advances in neuroimaging, spinal epidural AVFs (edAVFs), which are similar to type I spinal dural AVFs (dAVFs), have recently been increasingly reported. These 2 entities have several important differences that influence the treatment strategy selected. The purposes of the present study were to compare angiographic and clinical differences between edAVFs and dAVFs and to provide treatment strategies for edAVFs based on a multicenter cohort.
A total of 280 consecutive patients with thoracic and lumbosacral spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) and edAVFs with intradural venous drainage were collected from 19 centers. After angiographic and clinical comparisons, the treatment failure rate by procedure, risk factors for treatment failure, and neurological outcomes were statistically analyzed in edAVF cases.
Final diagnoses after an angiographic review included 199 dAVFs and 81 edAVFs. At individual centers, 29 patients (36%) with edAVFs were misdiagnosed with dAVFs. Spinal edAVFs were commonly fed by multiple feeding arteries (54%) shunted into a single or multiple intradural vein(s) (91% and 9%) through a dilated epidural venous plexus. Preoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Aminoff-Logue gait and micturition grades were worse in patients with edAVFs than in those with dAVFs. Among the microsurgical (n = 42), endovascular (n = 36), and combined (n = 3) treatment groups of edAVFs, the treatment failure rate was significantly higher in the index endovascular treatment group (7.5%, 31%, and 0%, respectively). Endovascular treatment was found to be associated with significantly higher odds of initial treatment failure (OR 5.72, 95% CI 1.45–22.6). In edAVFs, the independent risk factor for treatment failure after microsurgery was the number of intradural draining veins (OR 17.9, 95% CI 1.56–207), while that for treatment failure after the endovascular treatment was the number of feeders (OR 4.11, 95% CI 1.23–13.8). Postoperatively, mRS score and Aminoff-Logue gait and micturition grades significantly improved in edAVFs with a median follow-up of 31 months.
Spinal epidural AVFs with intradural venous drainage are a distinct entity and may be classified as type V spinal vascular malformations. Based on the largest multicenter cohort, this study showed that primary microsurgery was superior to endovascular treatment for initial treatment success in patients with spinal edAVFs.
Keisuke Takai, Toshiki Endo, Takao Yasuhara, Toshitaka Seki, Kei Watanabe, Yuki Tanaka, Ryu Kurokawa, Hideaki Kanaya, Fumiaki Honda, Takashi Itabashi, Osamu Ishikawa, Hidetoshi Murata, Takahiro Tanaka, Yusuke Nishimura, Kaoru Eguchi, Toshihiro Takami, Yusuke Watanabe, Takeo Nishida, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Tatsuya Ohtonari, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Takafumi Mitsuhara, Seishi Matsui, Hisaaki Uchikado, Gohsuke Hattori, Hitoshi Yamahata, and Makoto Taniguchi
The purpose of the present study was to compare the treatment success rates of primary neurosurgical and endovascular treatments in patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs).
Data from 199 consecutive patients with thoracic and lumbosacral spinal dAVFs were collected from 18 centers. Angiographic and clinical findings, the rate of initial treatment failure or recurrence by procedures, risk factors for treatment failure, complications, and neurological outcomes were statistically analyzed.
Spinal dAVFs were frequently detected in the thoracic region (81%), fed by a single feeder (86%), and shunted into an intradural vein via the dura mater. The fistulous connection between the feeder(s) and intradural vein was located at a single spinal level in 195 patients (98%) and at 2 independent levels in 4 patients (2%). Among the neurosurgical (n = 145), and endovascular (n = 50) treatment groups of single dAVFs (n = 195), the rate of initial treatment failure or recurrence was significantly higher in the index endovascular treatment group (0.68% and 36%). A multivariate analysis identified endovascular treatment as an independent risk factor with significantly higher odds of initial treatment failure or recurrence (OR 69; 95% CI 8.7–546). The rate of complications did not significantly differ between the two treatment groups (4.1% for neurosurgical vs 4.0% for endovascular treatment). With a median follow-up of 26 months, improvements of ≥ 1 point in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and Aminoff-Logue gait and Aminoff-Logue micturition grades were observed in 111 (56%), 121 (61%), and 79 (40%) patients, respectively. Independent risk factors for lack of improvement in the Aminoff-Logue gait grades were multiple treatments due to initial treatment failure or recurrence (OR 3.1) and symptom duration (OR 1.02).
Based on data obtained from the largest and most recently assessed multicenter cohort, the present study shows that primary neurosurgery is superior to endovascular treatment for the complete obliteration of spinal dAVFs by a single procedure.