The authors report the case of a 78-year-old man with a craniocervical junction epidural arteriovenous fistula who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured anterior spinal artery (ASA) aneurysm. Because endovascular embolization was difficult, a posterolateral approach was chosen and a novel endoscopic fluorescence imaging system was utilized to clip the aneurysm. The fluorescence imaging system provided clear and magnified views of the ventral spinal cord simultaneously with the endoscope-integrated indocyanine green videoangiography, which helped safely obliterate the ASA aneurysm. With the aid of this novel imaging system, surgeons can appreciate and manipulate complex vascular pathologies of the ventral spinal cord through a posterolateral approach, even when the lesion is closely related to the ASA.
Ahmed Mansour, Toshiki Endo, Tomoo Inoue, Kenichi Sato, Hidenori Endo, Miki Fujimura, and Teiji Tominaga
Hidenori Endo, Shin-ichiro Sugiyama, Toshiki Endo, Miki Fujimura, Hiroaki Shimizu, and Teiji Tominaga
The most frequently used option to reconstruct the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is an ACA-ACA side-to-side anastomosis. The long-term outcome and complications of this technique are unclear. The authors report a case of a de novo aneurysm arising at the site of A3-A3 anastomosis. A 53-year-old woman underwent A3-A3 side-to-side anastomosis for the treatment of a ruptured right A2 dissecting aneurysm. At 44 months after surgery, a de novo aneurysm developed at the site of anastomosis. The aneurysm developed in the front wall of the anastomosis site, and projected to the anterosuperior direction. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study showed the localized region with high wall shear stress coincident with the pulsation in the front wall of the anastomosis site, where the aneurysm developed. A Y-shaped superficial temporal artery (STA) interposition graft was used successfully to reconstruct both ACAs, and then the aneurysm was trapped. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of a de novo aneurysm that developed at the site of an ACA-ACA side-to-side anastomosis. A CFD study showed that hemodynamic stress might be an underlying cause of the aneurysm formation. A Y-shaped STA interposition graft is a useful option to treat this aneurysm. Long-term follow-up is necessary to detect this rare complication after ACA-ACA anastomosis.
Toshiki Endo, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Hidefumi Jokura, and Teiji Tominaga
Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts are a rare cause of spinal cord compression. Since 2000, the authors have treated patients using 2- or 3-level hemilaminectomy or laminectomy followed by partial cyst wall resection as well as endoscopic inspection and fenestration of the cyst wall. They evaluated the usefulness and reliability of endoscopic treatment for this clinical entity based on long-term follow-up results.
Between 1997 and 2003, 11 patients (3 males and 8 females) with spinal intradural arachnoid cysts were treated, and the authors conducted a retrospective review of these cases. Before 2000, 5 patients were surgically treated without the use of endoscopic techniques. During that time, more than 4 levels of hemilaminectomy were performed to expose and remove cyst walls that extended longitudinally over the spinal axis. Beginning in 2000, endoscopy was used in all 6 cases. Up to 3 levels of hemilaminectomy or 2 levels of laminectomy were performed, and the cyst wall was resected through the bone window. An endoscope was inserted into the cyst cavity and moved in the cranial and caudal direction to fenestrate the cyst wall, resulting in communication of the cyst cavity with the subarachnoid space.
Postoperatively, the neurological symptoms of all patients improved. During long-term follow-up (mean 114.8 months), none of the patients treated with or without endoscopy experienced recurrent cyst formation.
Endoscopic techniques allow neurosurgeons to treat spinal intradural arachnoid cysts less invasively than with standard surgical approaches. Although the number of cases reviewed in this report is small, the data suggest that the use of endoscopy can be an important option in the surgical treatment of spinal arachnoid cysts.
Yoshimichi Sato, Toshiki Endo, Tomoo Inoue, Miki Fujimura, and Teiji Tominaga
The authors report on the case of a 65-year-old man suffering progressive gait disturbance and hearing impairment due to superficial siderosis (SS). According to the literature, repeated hemorrhage into the subarachnoid space causes SS; however, the bleeding source remains unknown in half of SS patients. In the presented case, preoperative MRI revealed a fluid-filled intraspinal cavity extending from C2 to T8 with a dural defect at the ventral C7 level. During surgery, the dural defect was seen to connect to the intraspinal cavity filled with xanthochromic fluid. Importantly, endoscopic observation verified that the rupture of fragile bridging veins in the cavity was the definite bleeding source. Postoperative MRI confirmed disappearance of the intraspinal cavity, and the patient’s symptoms gradually improved. The use of endoscopy helped to establish the diagnosis and led to definite treatment. Fragile bridging veins in the fluid-filled interdural layers were novelly verified as a bleeding source in SS. Recognizing this phenomenon is important since it can establish closure of the dural defect as a definite treatment in SS with an intraspinal cavity.
Tomohiro Kawaguchi, Atsuhiro Nakagawa, Toshiki Endo, Miki Fujimura, Yukihiko Sonoda, and Teiji Tominaga
Neuroendoscopic surgery allows minimally invasive surgery, but lacks effective methods to control bleeding. Water jet dissection with continuous flow has been used in liver and kidney surgery since the 1980s, and is effective for tissue manipulation with vascular preservation, but involves some potential risks, such as elevation of intracranial pressure during application in the ventricles. The authors previously reported the efficacy of the actuator-driven pulsed water jet device (ADPJ) to dissect soft tissue with vascular preservation in microscopic neurosurgery. This feasibility study investigated the use of the ADPJ to reduce the amount of water usage, leading to more safety with sustained efficacy.
A small-diameter pulsed water jet device was developed for use with the flexible neuroendoscope. To identify the optimal conditions for the water jet, the flow rate, water pressure, and distance between the nozzle and target were analyzed in an in vitro study by using a gelatin brain phantom. A ventricle model was used to monitor the internal pressure and temperature. For ex vivo experiments the porcine brain was harvested and ventricle walls were exposed, and subsequently immersed into physiological saline. For in vivo experiments the cortex was microsurgically resected to make the small cortico-ventricle window, and then the endoscope was introduced to dissect ventricle walls.
In the in vitro experiments, water pressure was approximately 6.5 bar at 0.5 mm from the ADPJ nozzle and was maintained at 1 mm, but dropped rapidly toward 50% at 2 mm, and became 10% at 3.5 mm. The ADPJ required less water to achieve the same dissection depth compared with the continuous-flow water jet. With the ventricle model, the internal pressure and temperature were well controlled at the baseline, with open water drainage. These results indicated that the ADPJ can be safely applied within the ventricles. The ADPJ was introduced into a flexible endoscope and the ventricle walls were dissected in both the ex vivo and in vivo conditions. The ventricle wall was dissected without obscuring the view, and the vascular structures were anatomically preserved under direct application. Histological examination revealed that both the vessels on the ventricle wall and the fine vessels in the parenchyma were preserved.
The ADPJ can safely and effectively dissect the ventricle wall, with vascular preservation in immersed conditions. To achieve the optimal result of tissue dissection with minimal surgical risk, the ADPJ is a potential device for neuroendoscopic surgery of the ventricles.
Toshiki Endo, Yasuko Yoshida, Reizo Shirane, and Takashi Yoshimoto
Robert J. Spinner, Toshiki Endo, Kimberly K. Amrami, Eric J. Dozois, Dusica Babovic-Vuksanovic, and Franklin H. Sim
The operative management of combined intrapelvic and extrapelvic sciatic notch dumbbell-shaped tumors is challenging. The relatively rare occurrence of these tumors and the varied extent of disease have made it difficult for surgeons to establish definitive surgical indications or predict favorable neurological outcomes based on preoperative imaging data.
In the past 3 years, the authors treated five patients presenting with radiating leg pain as a result of benign sciatic notch dumbbell-shaped tumors. These tumors in three patients with unilateral leg symptoms were considered unresectable by other neurosurgeons because of presumed direct intrinsic neural involvement. After high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated that the extensive tumors were separate from the sciatic nerve and the lumbosacral plexus, however, these patients underwent a combined one-stage transabdominal and posterior transgluteal complete resection. Normal neurological status was maintained postoperatively in these three patients, and after more than 1 year of postoperative follow up, there were no tumor recurrences.
In two patients with bilateral symptoms and extensive tumor burden, serial MR images showed that innumerable tumors directly involved the entire cross-sectional area of the sciatic nerves and extended longitudinally to the lumbosacral plexuses. Tumor debulking or resection in these patients would have resulted in neurological deficits and would not have addressed their neuropathic pain, and therefore no surgery was performed. These two patients were treated pharmacologically and advised to monitor their tumor status over the course of their lifetimes in case of malignant transformation of the tumor.
A combined one-stage transabdominal and transgluteal approach allows safe resection of selected benign but extensive sciatic notch tumors. High-resolution MR imaging is a useful tool in the management of these tumors because it allows the surgeon to visualize the anatomical relationships of the tumor to the sciatic nerve. The authors believe that as this imaging technology advances, it will provide surgeons with a method to predict definitively which sciatic notch tumors displace rather than directly involve the sciatic nerve, and therefore indicate which tumors can be resected safely and completely.
Toshiki Endo, Yushi Fujii, Shin-ichiro Sugiyama, Rong Zhang, Shogo Ogita, Kenichi Funamoto, Ryuta Saito, and Teiji Tominaga
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a method for distributing small and large molecules locally into the interstitial space of the spinal cord. Delivering these molecules to the spinal cord is otherwise difficult due to the blood-spinal cord barrier. Previous research has proven the efficacy of CED for delivering molecules over long distances along the white matter tracts in the spinal cord. Conversely, the characteristics of CED for delivering molecules to the gray matter of the spinal cord remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to reveal regional distribution of macromolecules in the gray and white matter of the spinal cord with special attention to the differences between the gray and white matter.
Sixteen rats (F344) underwent Evans blue dye CED to either the white matter (dorsal column, 8 rats) or the gray matter (ventral horn, 8 rats) of the spinal cord. The rates and total volumes of infusion were 0.2 μl/min and 2.0 μl, respectively. The infused volume of distribution was visualized and quantified histologically. Computational models of the rat spinal cord were also obtained to perform CED simulations in the white and gray matter.
The ratio of the volume of distribution to the volume of infusion in the gray matter of the spinal cord was 3.60 ± 0.69, which was comparable to that of the white matter (3.05 ± 0.88). When molecules were injected into the white matter, drugs remained in the white matter tract and rarely infused into the adjacent gray matter. Conversely, when drugs were injected into the gray matter, they infiltrated laterally into the white matter tract and traveled longitudinally and preferably along the white matter. In the infusion center, the areas were larger in the gray matter CED than in the white matter (Mann-Whitney U-test, p < 0.01). In computational simulations, the aforementioned characteristics of CED to the gray and white matter were reaffirmed.
In the spinal cord, the gray and white matter have distinct characteristics of drug distribution by CED. These differences between the gray and white matter should be taken into account when considering drug delivery to the spinal cord. Computational simulation is a useful tool for predicting drug distributions in the normal spinal cord.
Takumi Kajitani, Toshiki Endo, Tomoo Inoue, Kenichi Sato, Yasushi Matsumoto, and Teiji Tominaga
The authors report the case of a 70-year-old woman with lumbar spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula (SEDAVF) who experienced subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after a diagnostic lumbar puncture. According to the literature, perimedullary spinal vein enlargement is a hallmark of spinal vascular diseases; however, there are certain cases in which routine sagittal MRI fails to disclose signal flow voids. In such cases, patients may undergo a lumbar tap to investigate the possible causes of spinal inflammatory or demyelinating disease. Recognizing this phenomenon is essential because lumbar puncture of the epidural venous pouch or an enlarged intradural vein in SEDAVF may induce severe SAH. A high clinical index of suspicion can prevent similar cases in lumbar SEDAVF.
Toshiki Endo, Misaki Aizawa-Kohama, Kenichi Nagamatsu, Kensuke Murakami, Akira Takahashi, and Teiji Tominaga
The characteristics and efficacy of indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography in cavernous malformation (CM) have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential utility of ICG videoangiography in the surgical treatment of intramedullary CMs.
The authors conducted a retrospective review of 8 cases involving 5 men and 3 women who had undergone surgery for intramedullary CM between January 2008 and July 2011. All patients were evaluated by means of MRI. The MRI findings and clinical history in all cases suggested intramedullary CM as a preoperative diagnosis. In 2 of 8 cases, dilated venous structures associated with CMs were demonstrated. In one of these cases, there were coexisting extramedullary CMs. Intraoperatively, ICG fluorescence was observed for 5 minutes using microscope-integrated videoangiography.
In all 8 cases, intra- and extramedullary CMs were seen as avascular areas on ICG videoangiography. Indocyanine green videoangiography helped surgeons to localize and predict margins of the lesions before performing myelotomy. Importantly, in the cases with associated venous anomalies, ICG videoangiography was useful in delineating and preserving the venous structures. In extramedullary CMs located dorsal to the spinal cord, gradual ICG infiltration was seen, starting at 110 seconds and maximal at 210 seconds after injection. Postoperative MRI confirmed total removal of the lesions in all cases, and subsequent recovery of all patients was uneventful.
Indocyanine green videoangiography provided useful information with regard to the detection of lesion margins by demonstrating intramedullary CMs as avascular areas. In cases associated with venous anomalies, ICG contributed to safe and complete removal of the CMs by visualizing the venous structure. In extramedullary CMs, ICG videoangiography demonstrated the characteristic of slow blood flow within CMs.