Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 12 items for

  • Author or Editor: Toshihiro Takami x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Tsutomu Ichinose, Takeo Goto, Kenichi Ishibashi, Toshihiro Takami, and Kenji Ohata

Object

Because resection followed by timely stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is becoming a standard strategy for skull base meningiomas, the role of initial surgical tumor reduction in this combined treatment should be clarified.

Methods

This study examined 161 patients with benign skull base meningiomas surgically treated at Osaka City University between January 1985 and December 2005. The mean follow-up period was 95.3 months. Patients were categorized into 3 groups based on the operative period and into 4 groups based on tumor location. Maximal resection was performed as first therapy throughout all periods. In the early period (1985–1994), in the absence of SRS, total excision of the tumor was intentionally performed for surgical cure of the disease. In the mid and late periods (1995–2000 and 2001–2005), small parts of the tumor invading critical neurovascular structures were left untouched to obtain good functional results. Residual tumors with high proliferation potential (Ki 67 index > 4%) or with progressive tendencies were treated with SRS. The extent of initial tumor resection, recurrence rate, Karnofsky Performance Scale score, and complication rate were investigated in each group.

Results

The mean tumor equivalent diameter of residual tumors was 3.67 mm in the no-recurrence group and 11.7 mm in the recurrence group. The mean tumor resection rate (TRR) was 98.5% in the no-recurrence group and 90.1% in the recurrence group. A significant relationship was seen between postoperative tumor size, TRR, and recurrence rate (p < 0.001), but the recurrence rate showed no significant relationship with any other factors such as operative period (p = 0.48), tumor location (p = 0.76), or preoperative tumor size (p = 0.067). The mean TRR was maintained throughout all operative periods, but the complication rate was lowest and postoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score was best in the late period (p < 0.001 each). Late-period results were as follows: mean TRR, 97.9%; mortality rate, 0%; and severe morbidity rate, 0%. Stereotactic radiosurgery procedures were added in 27 cases (16.8%) across all periods. Throughout all follow-up periods, 158 tumors were satisfactorily controlled by maximal possible excision alone or in combination with adequate SRS.

Conclusions

The combination of maximal possible resection and additional SRS improves functional outcomes in patients with skull base meningioma. A TRR greater than 97% in volume can be achieved with satisfactory functional preservation and will lead to excellent tumor control in combined treatment of skull base meningioma.

Full access

Kentaro Naito, Toru Yamagata, Hironori Arima, Junya Abe, Naohiro Tsuyuguchi, Kenji Ohata, and Toshihiro Takami

OBJECT

Although the usefulness of PET for brain lesions has been established, few reports have examined the use of PET for spinal intramedullary lesions. This study investigated the diagnostic utility of PET/CT for spinal intramedullary lesions.

METHODS

l-[methyl-11C]-methionine (MET)- or [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT was performed in 26 patients with spinal intramedullary lesions. The region of interest (ROI) within the spinal cord parenchyma was placed manually in the axial plane. Maximum pixel counts in the ROIs were normalized to the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) using subject body weight. For FDG-PET the SUVmax was corrected for lean body mass (SULmax) to exclude any influence of the patient’s body shape. Each SUV was analyzed based on histopathological results after surgery. The diagnostic validity of the SUV was further compared with the tumor proliferation index using the MIB-1 monoclonal antibody (MIB-1 index).

RESULTS

A total of 16 patients underwent both FDG-PET and MET-PET, and the remaining 10 patients underwent either FDG-PET or MET-PET. Pathological diagnoses included high-grade malignancy such as glioblastoma multiforme, anaplastic astrocytoma, or anaplastic ependymoma in 5 patients; low-grade malignancy such as hemangioblastoma, diffuse astrocytoma, or ependymoma in 12 patients; and nonneoplastic lesion including cavernous malformation in 9 patients. Both FDG and MET accumulated significantly in high-grade malignancy, and the SULmax and SUVmax correlated with the tumor proliferation index. Therapeutic response after chemotherapy or radiation in high-grade malignancy was well monitored. However, a significant difference in SULmax and SUVmax for FDG-PET and MET-PET was not evident between low-grade malignancy and nonneoplastic lesions.

CONCLUSIONS

Spinal PET/CT using FDG or MET for spinal intramedullary lesions appears useful and practical, particularly for tumors with high-grade malignancy. Differentiation of tumors with low-grade malignancy from nonneoplastic lesions may still prove difficult. Further technological refinement, including the selection of radiotracer or analysis evaluation methods, is needed.

Restricted access

Toshihiro Takami, Kenji Ohata, Misao Nishikawa, Takeo Goto, Yuzo Terakawa, Yuichi Inoue, Kenichi Wakasa, and Mitsuhiro Hara

✓ The authors discuss the utility of anterior transposition of the oculomotor nerve from the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus to widen the corridor posterior to the cisternal segment of the oculomotor nerve; this allows exposure of the anterolateral surface of the midbrain. This additional exposure was successfully used for the resection of a large calcified cavernoma in the upper brainstem of a 67-year-old woman who had presented with sudden onset of left hemiparesis and oculomotor palsy. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and she displayed symptomatic improvement.

Restricted access

Kenji Ohata, Toshihiro Takami, Alaa El-Naggar, Michiharu Morino, Akimasa Nishio, Yuichi Inoue, and Akira Hakuba

✓ The treatment of spinal intramedullary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with a diffuse-type nidus that contains a neural element poses different challenges compared with a glomus-type nidus. The surgical elimination of such lesions involves the risk of spinal cord ischemia that results from coagulation of the feeding artery that, at the same time, supplies cord parenchyma. However, based on evaluation of the risks involved in performing embolization, together with the frequent occurrence of reperfusion, which necessitates frequent reembolization, the authors consider surgery to be a one-stage solution to a disease that otherwise has a very poor prognosis.

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed diffuse-type intramedullary AVMs in the cervical spinal cords of three patients who subsequently underwent surgery via the posterior approach. The AVM was supplied by the anterior spinal artery in one case and by both the anterior and posterior spinal arteries in the other two cases. In all three cases, a posterior median myelotomy was performed up to the vicinity of the anterior median fissure that divided the spinal cord together with the nidus, and the feeding artery was coagulated and severed at its origin from the anterior spinal artery. In the two cases in which the posterior spinal artery fed the AVM, the feeding artery was coagulated on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord. Neurological outcome improved in one patient and deteriorated slightly to mildly in the other two patients. Postoperative angiography demonstrated complete disappearance of the AVM in all cases.

Because of the extremely poor prognosis of patients with spinal intramedullary AVMs, this surgical technique for the treatment of diffuse-type AVMs provides acceptable operative outcome. Surgical intervention should be considered when managing a patient with a diffuse-type intramedullary AVM in the cervical spinal cord.

Restricted access

Takeo Goto, Kenji Ohata, Toshihiro Takami, Misao Nishikawa, Akimasa Nishio, Michiharu Morino, Naohiro Tsuyuguchi, and Mitsuhiro Hara

Object. The authors evaluated an alternative method to avoid postoperative posterior tethering of the spinal cord following resection of spinal ependymomas.

Methods. Twenty-five patients with spinal ependymoma underwent surgery between 1978 and 2002. There were 16 male and nine female patients whose ages at the time of surgery ranged from 14 to 64 years (mean 41.8 years). The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 279 months (mean 112.4 months). In the initial 17 patients (Group A), the procedure to prevent arachnoidal adhesion consisted of the layer-to-layer closure of three meninges and laminoplasty. In the subsequently treated eight patients (Group B), the authors performed an alternative technique that included pial suturing, dural closure with Gore-Tex membrane—assisted patch grafting, and expansive laminoplasty. In Group A, postoperative adhesion was radiologically detected in eight cases (47%), and delayed neurological deterioration secondary to posterior tethering of the cord was found in five cases. In Group B, there was no evidence of adhesive posterior tethering or delayed neurological deterioration. A significant intergroup statistical difference was demonstrated for radiologically documented posterior tethering (p < 0.05, Fisher exact test). Moreover, patients with radiologically demonstrated posterior tethering suffered a significant delayed neurological functional deterioration (p < 0.01, Fisher exact test).

Conclusions. This new technique for closure of the surgical wound is effective in preventing of postoperative posterior spinal cord tethering after excision of spinal ependymoma.

Restricted access

Takeo Goto, Kenji Ohata, Toshihiro Takami, Misao Nishikawa, Naohiro Tsuyuguchi, Michiharu Morino, Yasuhiro Matusaka, Akimasa Nishio, Yuichi Inoue, and Mitsuhiro Hara

Object. The authors describe a new surgical technique for cervical laminoplasty that was performed in 25 patients. The posterior elements along with the various ligaments are removed en bloc and are stabilized in a lift-up position by placing hydroxyapatite (HA) laminar spacers and titanium miniplates and screws. The procedure and clinical results are discussed.

Methods. The posterior spinal elements, including the lamina(e), spinous process(es), and various attached ligaments, are removed en bloc by incising the lamina in its lateral aspect. Trapezoid-shaped HA spacers are placed between the cut ends of the laminae or between the laminae and lateral masses bilaterally at each level. Malleable titanium miniplates and screws are used for fixation of the spacers. The fixation of transected laminae was judged to be successful. Postoperative care included application of a soft neck collar for 1 week but no further restriction of activity. Surgery-related outcome was assessed in the 21 patients who attended more than 6 months of follow up after laminoplasty. There were 18 men and three women who ranged in age from 27 to 81 years. Cervical stenotic myelopathy was demonstrated in 15 patients who underwent decompressive and expansive laminoplasty, and spinal tumors were documented in six patients who underwent a nonexpansive laminoplasty. Postoperative and follow-up computerized tomography scans demonstrated no hardware failure. Bone formation around the spacers was observed either at 6- or at 9-month follow-up examination in all 21 patients. Fusion of the reconstructed laminae was found to be completed at 12 months in all 18 patients able to attend follow up for this duration. Spinal alignment and the range of motion of the cervical spine were well preserved. In patients with stenotic cervical myelopathy, neurological and anatomical outcome of canal expansion were satisfactory.

Conclusions. This technique enables rigid laminoplasty while maintaining anatomical and biomechanical integrity of posterior elements of cervical spine. Expansive and nonexpansive laminoplasty procedures are possible.

Restricted access

Takeo Goto, Kenji Ohata, Michiharu Morino, Toshihiro Takami, Naohiro Tsuyuguchi, Akimasa Nishio, and Mitsuhiro Hara

Object

The authors evaluated their surgical experience over 20 years with 14 treated falcotentorial meningiomas.

Methods

In the past 20 years, 14 patients with falcotentorial junction meningiomas were surgically treated. There were seven men and seven women, whose ages ranged from 34 to 79 years. On the basis of neuroimaging studies, the authors analyzed the influence of the anatomical relationship of the tumor to the vein of Galen, patency of the vein of Galen, tumor size, and the signal intensities on the magnetic resonance images to determine possible difficulties that might be encountered during surgery and to prognosticate the outcome of surgery. Depending on the relationship with the vein of Galen, tumors were labeled as either a superior or an inferior type. All tumors were resected via an occipital transtentorial approach.

The surgical outcome in eight patients was excellent; in the remaining six patients, it was fair. Of the prognostic factors, tumor location especially seemed to be the most important (p < 0.01, Fisher exact test). The outcome associated with the inferior type of tumor was significantly less optimal probably due to the relationship to the deep veins and the brainstem. In this series, the occlusion of deep veins did not significantly influence outcome.

Conclusions

Classification of the tumor location by preoperative neuroimaging studies can be helpful in estimating the surgical difficulty that might be encountered in treating the falcotentorial junction meningioma.

Restricted access

Kenji Ohata, Alaa El-Naggar, Toshihiro Takami, Michiharu Morino, Yousry El-Adawy, Kanan El-Sheik, Yuichi Inoue, and Akira Hakuba

Object. Cavernous sinus cavernomas are rare lesions associated with high rates of intraoperative mortality and morbidity resulting from profuse bleeding. In this paper, the authors report their experience in treating five patients with histologically confirmed cavernous sinus cavernomas and describe the efficacy of induced hypotension in facilitating excision of the lesion.

Methods. All five patients were women ranging in age from 25 to 54 years, with an average age of 42 years. The mass was small in one and large (> 3 cm in diameter) in four. In one patient with a large mass, cardiac arrest occurred after the craniotomy, and remarkable reduction in the size of the cavernoma was evident on postmortem examination. The other three large lesions were successfully removed piecemeal after induction of hypotension (60–80 mm Hg systolic pressure), which remarkably reduced the mass and the bleeding during surgery. In the remaining patient, who had a small lesion, the cavernoma was removed in one piece.

Conclusions. Cavernous sinus cavernoma can be thought of as a cluster of sinusoidal cavities, the size of which varies depending on the systemic blood pressure. During surgery, reduction of the mass and control of bleeding from the cavernoma can be achieved by inducing hypotension, which enables the safe excision of this lesion. This technique should be considered by surgeons resecting a cavernous sinus tumor, especially when cavernoma is suspected.

Restricted access

Naohiro Tsuyuguchi, Ichiro Sunada, Yoshiyasu Iwai, Kazuhiro Yamanaka, Kiyoaki Tanaka, Toshihiro Takami, Yumiko Otsuka, Shinichi Sakamoto, Kenji Ohata, Takeo Goto, and Mitsuhiro Hara

Object. In this study the authors examined how to differentiate radiation necrosis from recurrent metastatic brain tumor following stereotactic radiosurgery by using positron emission tomography (PET) with l-[methyl-11C]methionine (MET).

Methods. In 21 adult patients with suspected recurrent metastatic brain tumor or radiation injury, MET-PET scans were obtained. These patients had previously undergone stereotactic radiosurgery and subsequent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) examinations before nuclear medicine imaging. Positron emission tomography images were obtained as a static scan of 10 minutes performed 20 minutes after injection of 370 MBq of MET. On MET-PET scans, the portion of the tumor with the highest accumulation of MET was selected as the region of interest (ROI), and the ratio of tumor tissue to normal tissue (T/N) was defined as the mean counts of radioisotope per pixel in the tumor divided by the mean counts per pixel in normal gray matter. The standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated using the same ROI in the tumor. The accuracy of the MET-PET scan was evaluated by correlating findings with results of subsequent histological analysis (11 cases) or, in cases in which surgery or biopsy was not performed, with subsequent clinical course and MR imaging findings (10 cases).

Histological examinations performed in 11 cases showed viable tumor cells with necrosis in nine and necrosis with no viable tumor cells in two. Another 10 cases were characterized as radiation necrosis because the patients exhibited stable neurological symptoms with no sign of massive enlargement of the lesion on follow-up MR images after 5 months. The mean T/N was 1.15 in the radiation necrosis group (12 cases) and 1.62 in the tumor recurrence group (nine cases). The mean SUV was 1.78 in the necrosis group and 2.5 in the recurrence group. There were statistically significant differences between the recurrence and necrosis groups in T/N and SUV. Furthermore, the borderline T/N value was 1.42 according to a 2 × 2 factorial table (high T/N or low T/N, recurrence or necrosis). From this result, the sensitivity and specificity of MET-PET scanning in detecting tumor recurrence were determined to be 77.8 and 100%, respectively.

Conclusions. The use of MET-PET scanning is a sensitive and accurate technique for differentiating between metastatic brain tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis following stereotactic radiosurgery. This study reveals important information for creating strategies to treat postradiation reactions.

Open access

Keisuke Takai, Toshiki Endo, Takao Yasuhara, Toshitaka Seki, Kei Watanabe, Yuki Tanaka, Ryu Kurokawa, Hideaki Kanaya, Fumiaki Honda, Takashi Itabashi, Osamu Ishikawa, Hidetoshi Murata, Takahiro Tanaka, Yusuke Nishimura, Kaoru Eguchi, Toshihiro Takami, Yusuke Watanabe, Takeo Nishida, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Tatsuya Ohtonari, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Takafumi Mitsuhara, Seishi Matsui, Hisaaki Uchikado, Gohsuke Hattori, Nobutaka Horie, Hitoshi Yamahata, and Makoto Taniguchi

OBJECTIVE

Spinal arteriovenous shunts are rare vascular lesions and are classified into 4 types (types I–IV). Due to rapid advances in neuroimaging, spinal epidural AVFs (edAVFs), which are similar to type I spinal dural AVFs (dAVFs), have recently been increasingly reported. These 2 entities have several important differences that influence the treatment strategy selected. The purposes of the present study were to compare angiographic and clinical differences between edAVFs and dAVFs and to provide treatment strategies for edAVFs based on a multicenter cohort.

METHODS

A total of 280 consecutive patients with thoracic and lumbosacral spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) and edAVFs with intradural venous drainage were collected from 19 centers. After angiographic and clinical comparisons, the treatment failure rate by procedure, risk factors for treatment failure, and neurological outcomes were statistically analyzed in edAVF cases.

RESULTS

Final diagnoses after an angiographic review included 199 dAVFs and 81 edAVFs. At individual centers, 29 patients (36%) with edAVFs were misdiagnosed with dAVFs. Spinal edAVFs were commonly fed by multiple feeding arteries (54%) shunted into a single or multiple intradural vein(s) (91% and 9%) through a dilated epidural venous plexus. Preoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Aminoff-Logue gait and micturition grades were worse in patients with edAVFs than in those with dAVFs. Among the microsurgical (n = 42), endovascular (n = 36), and combined (n = 3) treatment groups of edAVFs, the treatment failure rate was significantly higher in the index endovascular treatment group (7.5%, 31%, and 0%, respectively). Endovascular treatment was found to be associated with significantly higher odds of initial treatment failure (OR 5.72, 95% CI 1.45–22.6). In edAVFs, the independent risk factor for treatment failure after microsurgery was the number of intradural draining veins (OR 17.9, 95% CI 1.56–207), while that for treatment failure after the endovascular treatment was the number of feeders (OR 4.11, 95% CI 1.23–13.8). Postoperatively, mRS score and Aminoff-Logue gait and micturition grades significantly improved in edAVFs with a median follow-up of 31 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Spinal epidural AVFs with intradural venous drainage are a distinct entity and may be classified as type V spinal vascular malformations. Based on the largest multicenter cohort, this study showed that primary microsurgery was superior to endovascular treatment for initial treatment success in patients with spinal edAVFs.