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Takayuki Ishikawa, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Yuichi Nagata, Jungsu Choo, Teppei Kawabata, Tomotaka Ishizaki and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

OBJECTIVE

Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is commonly used for anterior skull base surgery, especially in the sella turcica (sellar) region. However, because of its anatomical position, CSF leakage is a major complication of this approach. The authors introduced a new grading reconstruction strategy for anterior skull base surgery with continuous dural suturing in 2013. In this paper the authors report on their methods and results.

METHODS

All patients with sellar or anterior skull base lesions that were removed with TSS or extended TSS by a single neurosurgeon between April 2013 and March 2017 at Nagoya University Hospital and several cooperating hospitals were retrospectively identified. Three methods of suturing dura were considered, depending on the dural defect.

RESULTS

There were 176 TSS cases (141 conventional TSS cases and 35 extended endoscopic TSS cases) and 76 cases of Esposito’s grade 2 or 3 intradural high-flow CSF leakage. In the high-flow CSF leak group, there were 3 cases of CSF leakage after the operation. The rates of CSF leakage after surgery corresponding to grades 2 and 3 were 2.9% (1/34) and 4.7% (2/42), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Dural suturing is a basic and key method for reconstruction of the skull base, and continuous suturing is the most effective approach. Using this approach, the frequency of cases requiring a nasoseptal flap and lumbar drainage can be reduced.

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Yuichi Nagata, Tadashi Watanabe, Tetsuya Nagatani, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Jonsu Chu and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

OBJECTIVE

Parasellar tumors that extend far laterally beyond the internal carotid artery or that are fibrous and adhere firmly to critical structures are difficult to remove totally via the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach alone. In such cases, a combined transsphenoidal-transcranial approach is effective to achieve maximal resection in a single stage. In this paper, a new minimally invasive surgical technique for complicated parasellar lesions, a fully endoscopic combined transsphenoidal–supraorbital keyhole approach, is presented.

METHODS

A retrospective review of patients who had been treated via a fully endoscopic combined transsphenoidal–supraorbital keyhole approach for complicated parasellar lesions was performed. The data for resection rate, perioperative mortality and morbidity, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 12 fully endoscopic combined transsphenoidal–supraorbital keyhole approaches were performed from March 2013 to February 2016; 10 were for pituitary adenomas and 2 were for craniopharyngiomas. Gross-total resection or near-total resection was achieved in 7 of 12 cases. Among the 11 patients who had presented with preoperative visual disturbances, 7 had visual improvement. However, 1 patient showed deterioration in visual function. No patient experienced postoperative hemorrhage, needed additional surgical treatment, or had postoperative CSF leakage.

CONCLUSIONS

In the combined transsphenoidal and transcranial approach, safe and effective cooperative manipulation with 2 surgical corridors can be performed for complicated parasellar lesions. The goal of this procedure is not to achieve gross-total resection, but to achieve safe resection. Moreover, this new surgical approach offers neurosurgeons a simpler operative field with less invasiveness than the conventional microscopic combined approach. The fully endoscopic combined endonasal–supraorbital keyhole approach is an efficacious procedure for complicated parasellar lesions with acceptable results.

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Kazuhito Takeuchi, Takashi Handa, Jonsu Chu, Kentaro Wada and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

Intraventricular hemorrhage and intracerebral aneurysms are relatively frequent complications associated with moyamoya disease. Prevention of aneurysm rerupture is important because it significantly decreases the morbidity and mortality rates. Aneurysms arising distal to collateral flow are sometimes observed in patients with intraventricular hemorrhage; however, the treatment of these aneurysms remains challenging because of their deep-seated location in the brain and accompanying narrow surgical corridor. The authors describe a neuroendoscopic aneurysm clipping technique performed in 2 cases using a small-diameter tubular retractor for intraventricular aneurysms of the distal lateral posterior choroidal artery. In this technique, the surgical field was continuously irrigated with artificial CSF to keep the ventricle size intact, and aneurysm clipping was performed through a tubular retractor that was introduced with neuronavigational guidance. The patients’ postoperative courses were uneventful, and CT angiography revealed complete clipping of the aneurysms and patent parent arteries. Endoscopic clipping using a tubular retractor is an effective and less invasive alternative for treating intraventricular aneurysms. The wet-field endoscopic technique is performed in an aqueous field and maintains an intact ventricle size, allowing for a clear surgical view and a wider, enhanced surgical field.

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Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Jun Yoshida, Hisao Seo, Kyoto Kazo, Yoshiharu Murata, Nobuo Matsui and Naoki Kageyama

✓ Monoclonal antibodies were produced by immunization of the human glioma cell line SK-MG-4. One of the antibodies, designated G-22, reacted with 18 of 20 glioma cell lines, two melanoma cell lines, and three lung cancer cell lines, but not with 39 cell lines derived from sarcoma, carcinoma, or hematopoietic tumors. The antigen was expressed in the brain of human fetuses in early gestation (9 weeks) but not in late gestation (8 months) or in normal adult brain, suggesting that the antibody recognizes neural differentiation antigens expressed by neuroectodermal origin. A high incidence of positive antigens has been observed in gliomas but not in the other neural tumors, such as ependymomas, meningiomas, and neuroblastomas. Thus, the antigen defined by the G-22 monoclonal antibody could be defined as glioma-associated antigen. Pulse-labeling with tritiated leucine and subsequent immunoprecipitation of the solubilized cell membrane revealed that the antigen recognized by this antibody had a molecular weight of 67 kD on sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).

It was shown by dot-blot enzyme-linked immunospecific assay (ELISA) that the antigen could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with gliomas. From analysis of affinity chromatography and SDS-PAGE, the antigen present in the CSF had a molecular weight similar to that of a 1% Nonidet P-40 (NP-40) extract from a glioma cell line. When the antigen in CSF was quantitatively assayed by ELISA, the mean antigen level (expressed as optical density at 450 nm) in the CSF of seven patients was 0.8 ± 0.28 (mean ± standard deviation), which was significantly higher than the 0.38 ± 0.14 level observed in the CSF of 15 patients with nonglioma brain tumors and the 0.23 ± 0.09 level in the CSF of four patients without brain tumors. These results indicate that the monoclonal antibody G-22 is useful for the diagnosis of glioma.

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Kenkou Maeda, Masaaki Mizuno, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Syuntarou Takasu, Tetsurou Nagasaka, Masaki Inagaki and Jun Yoshida

Object. The nature and origin of multinucleated giant cells in glioma have not been made clear. To investigate the phosphorylation of intermediate filaments, the authors studied multinucleated giant cells in vitro and in vivo by using mitosis-specific phosphorylated antibodies.

Methods. Cultured human glioma cells were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 4A4, KT13, and TM71, which recognized the phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser55, glial fibrillary acidic protein at Ser13, and vimentin at Ser71, respectively. Subsequently, the nature of multinucleated giant cells was investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy. In addition, paraffin-embedded tissue sections obtained in three patients with giant cell glioblastoma were also investigated.

Multinucleated giant cells were immunoreacted with the mAb 4A4 and not with KT13 and TM71 in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the authors obtained these results in multinucleated giant cells under natural conditions, without drug treatments.

Conclusions. Findings in this investigation indicated that multinucleated giant cells are those remaining in mitosis between metaphase and telophase, undergoing neither fusion nor degeneration.

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Kenichiro Iwami, Hiroyuki Momota, Atsushi Natsume, Sayano Kinjo, Tetsuya Nagatani and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

Object

Mouse models have been widely used in developing therapies for human brain tumors. However, surgical techniques such as bone drilling and skin suturing to create brain tumors in adult mice are still complicated. The aim of this study was to establish a simple and accurate method for intracranial injection of cells or other materials into mice.

Methods

The authors performed micro CT scans and skull dissection to assess the anatomical characteristics of the mouse postglenoid foramen. They then used xenograft and genetically engineered mouse models to evaluate a novel technique of percutaneous intracranial injection via the postglenoid foramen. They injected green fluorescent protein–labeled U87MG cells or virus-producing cells into adult mouse brains via the postglenoid foramen and identified the location of the created tumors by using bioluminescence imaging and histological analysis.

Results

The postglenoid foramen was found to be a well-conserved anatomical structure that allows percutaneous injection into the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and basal cistern in mice. The mean (± SD) time for the postglenoid foramen injection technique was 88 ± 15 seconds. The incidence of in-target tumor formation in the xenograft model ranged from 80% to 100%, depending on the target site. High-grade gliomas were successfully developed by postglenoid foramen injection in the adult genetically engineered mouse using virus-mediated platelet-derived growth factor B gene transfer. There were no procedure-related complications.

Conclusions

The postglenoid foramen can be used as a needle entry site into the brain of the adult mouse. Postglenoid foramen injection is a less invasive, safe, precise, and rapid method of implanting cells into the adult mouse brain. This method can be applied to both orthotopic xenograft and genetically engineered mouse models and may have further applications in mice for the development of therapies for human brain tumors.

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Masazumi Fujii, Satoshi Maesawa, Kazuya Motomura, Miyako Futamura, Yuichiro Hayashi, Itsuko Koba and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

OBJECT

The deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area, recently named the frontal aslant tract (FAT), is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. Injury to the deep frontal lobe is known to cause aphasia that mimics the aphasia caused by damage to the supplementary motor area. Although fiber dissection and tractography have revealed the existence of the tract, little is known about its function. The aim of this study was to determine the function of the FAT via electrical stimulation in patients with glioma who underwent awake surgery.

METHODS

The authors analyzed the data from subcortical mapping with electrical stimulation in 5 consecutive cases (3 males and 2 females, age range 40–54 years) with gliomas in the left frontal lobe. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography of the FAT were performed in all cases. A navigation system and intraoperative MRI were used in all cases. During the awake phase of the surgery, cortical mapping was performed to find the precentral gyrus and Broca's area, followed by tumor resection. After the cortical layer was removed, subcortical mapping was performed to assess language-associated fibers in the white matter.

RESULTS

In all 5 cases, positive responses were obtained at the stimulation sites in the subcortical area adjacent to the FAT, which was visualized by the navigation system. Speech arrest was observed in 4 cases, and remarkably slow speech and conversation was observed in 1 case. The location of these sites was also determined on intraoperative MR images and estimated on preoperative MR images with DTI tractography, confirming the spatial relationships among the stimulation sites and white matter tracts. Tumor removal was successfully performed without damage to this tract, and language function did not deteriorate in any of the cases postoperatively.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors identified the left FAT and confirmed that it was associated with language functions. This tract should be recognized by clinicians to preserve language function during brain tumor surgery, especially for tumors located in the deep frontal lobe on the language-dominant side.

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Kuniaki Tanahashi, Kenji Uda, Yoshio Araki, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Jungsu Choo, Lushun Chalise, Kazuya Motomura, Fumiharu Ohka, Toshihiko Wakabayashi and Atsushi Natsume

The presigmoid approach (PSA) is selected to obtain more lateral access to cerebellopontine angle tumors, brainstem cavernous malformations, or vertebrobasilar artery aneurysms than the standard retrosigmoid approach. However, mastoidectomy for the PSA can be considered time-consuming and to carry a higher risk of complications due to the anatomical complexity of the region. The authors established a method of minimized mastoidectomy focused on exposing Trautmann’s triangle as the corridor for the PSA while maximizing procedural simplicity and safety and maintaining a sufficient operative view. The authors present their method of minimized mastoidectomy in a cadaver dissection and operative cases, showing potential as a useful option for the PSA.

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Toru Arima, Atsushi Natsume, Hisashi Hatano, Norimoto Nakahara, Mitsugu Fujita, Dai Ishii, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Manabu Doyu, Tetsuro Nagasaka and Jun Yoshida

✓ A rare case of chordoid meningioma in the lateral ventricle observed in an adult is reported. The first clinical manifestation of the disease was a prolonged fever of unknown origin. Abnormalities in the patient's blood chemistry, principally polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia (immunoglobulin [Ig]G, IgA, and markedly IgE) and an elevated serum level of C-reactive protein, were associated with the disease. The tumor was histologically confirmed to be a chordoid meningioma, and its surgical removal resulted in complete resolution of the patient's symptoms. By combining reverse transcription—polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis, it may be shown that cytokine production, including that of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and vascular endothelial growth factor, plays a role in the pathogenesis of chordoid meningioma associated with Castleman syndrome.

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Shoichi Haimoto, Ralph T. Schär, Yusuke Nishimura, Masahito Hara, Toshihiko Wakabayashi and Howard J. Ginsberg

OBJECTIVE

Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of subfascial intrawound application of vancomycin powder in spine surgery in reducing the rate of surgical site infections (SSIs). However, to date no study has evaluated the efficacy and safety of suprafascial application of vancomycin powder in spine surgery. The purpose of this study was to quantify the rate of SSIs after open instrumented posterior spinal fusion with and without application of suprafascial vancomycin powder and to evaluate the rate of vancomycin powder–related local adverse effects.

METHODS

The authors conducted a single-center retrospective case-control study of adult patients undergoing open instrumented posterior fusion of the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine performed by a single surgeon from January 2010 through December 2016. In March 2013, routine application of 1 g of suprafascial vancomycin powder was started for all cases in addition to standard systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Baseline demographics and operative data as well as the SSI rates were compared between the study groups. The incidence of vancomycin powder–related adverse effects was analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 515 patients (268 in the untreated group and 247 in the treated group) were included in the study. The mean age was significantly higher in the treated group than in the untreated group (58.4 vs 54.4 years, p < 0.01). Operative variables were similar between the study groups. Patients receiving vancomycin powder had a significantly lower infection rate (5.6% in the untreated group vs 0% in the treated group, p < 0.001). No vancomycin powder–related adverse effects were identified in the treated group.

CONCLUSIONS

Routine application of suprafascial intrawound vancomycin powder in addition to systemic antibiotic prophylaxis is an easy-to-use, safe, and effective strategy for preventing SSIs after instrumented posterior spinal fusion. Suprafascial application of vancomycin powder could be a valuable alternative to previously reported subfascial distribution, minimizing the risk of local adverse drug reactions.