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Yuichi Nagata, Tadashi Watanabe, Tetsuya Nagatani, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Jonsu Chu, and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

OBJECTIVE

Parasellar tumors that extend far laterally beyond the internal carotid artery or that are fibrous and adhere firmly to critical structures are difficult to remove totally via the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach alone. In such cases, a combined transsphenoidal-transcranial approach is effective to achieve maximal resection in a single stage. In this paper, a new minimally invasive surgical technique for complicated parasellar lesions, a fully endoscopic combined transsphenoidal–supraorbital keyhole approach, is presented.

METHODS

A retrospective review of patients who had been treated via a fully endoscopic combined transsphenoidal–supraorbital keyhole approach for complicated parasellar lesions was performed. The data for resection rate, perioperative mortality and morbidity, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 12 fully endoscopic combined transsphenoidal–supraorbital keyhole approaches were performed from March 2013 to February 2016; 10 were for pituitary adenomas and 2 were for craniopharyngiomas. Gross-total resection or near-total resection was achieved in 7 of 12 cases. Among the 11 patients who had presented with preoperative visual disturbances, 7 had visual improvement. However, 1 patient showed deterioration in visual function. No patient experienced postoperative hemorrhage, needed additional surgical treatment, or had postoperative CSF leakage.

CONCLUSIONS

In the combined transsphenoidal and transcranial approach, safe and effective cooperative manipulation with 2 surgical corridors can be performed for complicated parasellar lesions. The goal of this procedure is not to achieve gross-total resection, but to achieve safe resection. Moreover, this new surgical approach offers neurosurgeons a simpler operative field with less invasiveness than the conventional microscopic combined approach. The fully endoscopic combined endonasal–supraorbital keyhole approach is an efficacious procedure for complicated parasellar lesions with acceptable results.

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Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Jun Yoshida, Hisao Seo, Kyoto Kazo, Yoshiharu Murata, Nobuo Matsui, and Naoki Kageyama

✓ Monoclonal antibodies were produced by immunization of the human glioma cell line SK-MG-4. One of the antibodies, designated G-22, reacted with 18 of 20 glioma cell lines, two melanoma cell lines, and three lung cancer cell lines, but not with 39 cell lines derived from sarcoma, carcinoma, or hematopoietic tumors. The antigen was expressed in the brain of human fetuses in early gestation (9 weeks) but not in late gestation (8 months) or in normal adult brain, suggesting that the antibody recognizes neural differentiation antigens expressed by neuroectodermal origin. A high incidence of positive antigens has been observed in gliomas but not in the other neural tumors, such as ependymomas, meningiomas, and neuroblastomas. Thus, the antigen defined by the G-22 monoclonal antibody could be defined as glioma-associated antigen. Pulse-labeling with tritiated leucine and subsequent immunoprecipitation of the solubilized cell membrane revealed that the antigen recognized by this antibody had a molecular weight of 67 kD on sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).

It was shown by dot-blot enzyme-linked immunospecific assay (ELISA) that the antigen could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with gliomas. From analysis of affinity chromatography and SDS-PAGE, the antigen present in the CSF had a molecular weight similar to that of a 1% Nonidet P-40 (NP-40) extract from a glioma cell line. When the antigen in CSF was quantitatively assayed by ELISA, the mean antigen level (expressed as optical density at 450 nm) in the CSF of seven patients was 0.8 ± 0.28 (mean ± standard deviation), which was significantly higher than the 0.38 ± 0.14 level observed in the CSF of 15 patients with nonglioma brain tumors and the 0.23 ± 0.09 level in the CSF of four patients without brain tumors. These results indicate that the monoclonal antibody G-22 is useful for the diagnosis of glioma.

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Kazuhito Takeuchi, Takashi Handa, Jonsu Chu, Kentaro Wada, and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

Intraventricular hemorrhage and intracerebral aneurysms are relatively frequent complications associated with moyamoya disease. Prevention of aneurysm rerupture is important because it significantly decreases the morbidity and mortality rates. Aneurysms arising distal to collateral flow are sometimes observed in patients with intraventricular hemorrhage; however, the treatment of these aneurysms remains challenging because of their deep-seated location in the brain and accompanying narrow surgical corridor. The authors describe a neuroendoscopic aneurysm clipping technique performed in 2 cases using a small-diameter tubular retractor for intraventricular aneurysms of the distal lateral posterior choroidal artery. In this technique, the surgical field was continuously irrigated with artificial CSF to keep the ventricle size intact, and aneurysm clipping was performed through a tubular retractor that was introduced with neuronavigational guidance. The patients’ postoperative courses were uneventful, and CT angiography revealed complete clipping of the aneurysms and patent parent arteries. Endoscopic clipping using a tubular retractor is an effective and less invasive alternative for treating intraventricular aneurysms. The wet-field endoscopic technique is performed in an aqueous field and maintains an intact ventricle size, allowing for a clear surgical view and a wider, enhanced surgical field.

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Kenkou Maeda, Masaaki Mizuno, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Syuntarou Takasu, Tetsurou Nagasaka, Masaki Inagaki, and Jun Yoshida

Object. The nature and origin of multinucleated giant cells in glioma have not been made clear. To investigate the phosphorylation of intermediate filaments, the authors studied multinucleated giant cells in vitro and in vivo by using mitosis-specific phosphorylated antibodies.

Methods. Cultured human glioma cells were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 4A4, KT13, and TM71, which recognized the phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser55, glial fibrillary acidic protein at Ser13, and vimentin at Ser71, respectively. Subsequently, the nature of multinucleated giant cells was investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy. In addition, paraffin-embedded tissue sections obtained in three patients with giant cell glioblastoma were also investigated.

Multinucleated giant cells were immunoreacted with the mAb 4A4 and not with KT13 and TM71 in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the authors obtained these results in multinucleated giant cells under natural conditions, without drug treatments.

Conclusions. Findings in this investigation indicated that multinucleated giant cells are those remaining in mitosis between metaphase and telophase, undergoing neither fusion nor degeneration.

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Takayuki Ishikawa, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Yuichi Nagata, Jungsu Choo, Teppei Kawabata, Tomotaka Ishizaki, and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

OBJECTIVE

Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is commonly used for anterior skull base surgery, especially in the sella turcica (sellar) region. However, because of its anatomical position, CSF leakage is a major complication of this approach. The authors introduced a new grading reconstruction strategy for anterior skull base surgery with continuous dural suturing in 2013. In this paper the authors report on their methods and results.

METHODS

All patients with sellar or anterior skull base lesions that were removed with TSS or extended TSS by a single neurosurgeon between April 2013 and March 2017 at Nagoya University Hospital and several cooperating hospitals were retrospectively identified. Three methods of suturing dura were considered, depending on the dural defect.

RESULTS

There were 176 TSS cases (141 conventional TSS cases and 35 extended endoscopic TSS cases) and 76 cases of Esposito’s grade 2 or 3 intradural high-flow CSF leakage. In the high-flow CSF leak group, there were 3 cases of CSF leakage after the operation. The rates of CSF leakage after surgery corresponding to grades 2 and 3 were 2.9% (1/34) and 4.7% (2/42), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Dural suturing is a basic and key method for reconstruction of the skull base, and continuous suturing is the most effective approach. Using this approach, the frequency of cases requiring a nasoseptal flap and lumbar drainage can be reduced.

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Masazumi Fujii, Satoshi Maesawa, Kazuya Motomura, Miyako Futamura, Yuichiro Hayashi, Itsuko Koba, and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

OBJECT

The deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area, recently named the frontal aslant tract (FAT), is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. Injury to the deep frontal lobe is known to cause aphasia that mimics the aphasia caused by damage to the supplementary motor area. Although fiber dissection and tractography have revealed the existence of the tract, little is known about its function. The aim of this study was to determine the function of the FAT via electrical stimulation in patients with glioma who underwent awake surgery.

METHODS

The authors analyzed the data from subcortical mapping with electrical stimulation in 5 consecutive cases (3 males and 2 females, age range 40–54 years) with gliomas in the left frontal lobe. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography of the FAT were performed in all cases. A navigation system and intraoperative MRI were used in all cases. During the awake phase of the surgery, cortical mapping was performed to find the precentral gyrus and Broca's area, followed by tumor resection. After the cortical layer was removed, subcortical mapping was performed to assess language-associated fibers in the white matter.

RESULTS

In all 5 cases, positive responses were obtained at the stimulation sites in the subcortical area adjacent to the FAT, which was visualized by the navigation system. Speech arrest was observed in 4 cases, and remarkably slow speech and conversation was observed in 1 case. The location of these sites was also determined on intraoperative MR images and estimated on preoperative MR images with DTI tractography, confirming the spatial relationships among the stimulation sites and white matter tracts. Tumor removal was successfully performed without damage to this tract, and language function did not deteriorate in any of the cases postoperatively.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors identified the left FAT and confirmed that it was associated with language functions. This tract should be recognized by clinicians to preserve language function during brain tumor surgery, especially for tumors located in the deep frontal lobe on the language-dominant side.

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Kuniaki Tanahashi, Kenji Uda, Yoshio Araki, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Jungsu Choo, Lushun Chalise, Kazuya Motomura, Fumiharu Ohka, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, and Atsushi Natsume

The presigmoid approach (PSA) is selected to obtain more lateral access to cerebellopontine angle tumors, brainstem cavernous malformations, or vertebrobasilar artery aneurysms than the standard retrosigmoid approach. However, mastoidectomy for the PSA can be considered time-consuming and to carry a higher risk of complications due to the anatomical complexity of the region. The authors established a method of minimized mastoidectomy focused on exposing Trautmann’s triangle as the corridor for the PSA while maximizing procedural simplicity and safety and maintaining a sufficient operative view. The authors present their method of minimized mastoidectomy in a cadaver dissection and operative cases, showing potential as a useful option for the PSA.

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Mitsugu Fujita, Masaaki Mizuno, Tetsuro Nagasaka, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Kenkou Maeda, Dai Ishii, Toru Arima, Aie Kawajiri, Masaki Inagaki, and Jun Yoshida

Object. The origin of multinucleated giant cells in glioma has not been made clear. In a previous paper the authors studied multinucleated giant tumor cells by using mitosis-specific phosphorylated antibodies to determine the phosphorylation of intermediate filaments and demonstrated that these cells stay in the early mitotic stage, undergoing neither fusion nor degeneration. In the current study the authors investigated the possible genetic causes of multinucleated giant tumor cells.

Methods. Cultured mono- or multinucleated human glioma cells were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 4A4, YT33, TM71, HTA28, YG72, and αAIM-1. The three former antibodies revealed a particular mitotic cell cycle through site-specific phosphorylation of vimentin; that is, the early phase, mid phase, and late phase, respectively. The three later antibodies demonstrated phosphorylation of H3 at Ser28, phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser72, and aurora-B, respectively, making it possible to identify aurora-B distribution and function during mitosis. In addition, paraffin-embedded tissue sections obtained in three patients with giant cell glioblastoma were also examined.

Multinucleated giant tumor cells immunoreacted with the mAb 4A4 and αAIM-1 but not with YT33, TM71, HTA28, and YG72 in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusions. Findings in this study indicated that multinucleated giant tumor cells remain in the early mitotic phase because of aurora-B dysfunction, effecting aberrations in cytoplasmic cleavage without affecting nuclear division.

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Toru Arima, Atsushi Natsume, Hisashi Hatano, Norimoto Nakahara, Mitsugu Fujita, Dai Ishii, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Manabu Doyu, Tetsuro Nagasaka, and Jun Yoshida

✓ A rare case of chordoid meningioma in the lateral ventricle observed in an adult is reported. The first clinical manifestation of the disease was a prolonged fever of unknown origin. Abnormalities in the patient's blood chemistry, principally polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia (immunoglobulin [Ig]G, IgA, and markedly IgE) and an elevated serum level of C-reactive protein, were associated with the disease. The tumor was histologically confirmed to be a chordoid meningioma, and its surgical removal resulted in complete resolution of the patient's symptoms. By combining reverse transcription—polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis, it may be shown that cytokine production, including that of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and vascular endothelial growth factor, plays a role in the pathogenesis of chordoid meningioma associated with Castleman syndrome.

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Kazuya Motomura, Masazumi Fujii, Satoshi Maesawa, Shunichiro Kuramitsu, Atsushi Natsume, and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

Alexia and agraphia are disorders common to the left inferior parietal lobule, including the angular and supramarginal gyri. However, it is still unclear how these cortical regions interact with other cortical sites and what the most important white matter tracts are in relation to reading and writing processes.

Here, the authors present the case of a patient who underwent an awake craniotomy for a left inferior parietal lobule glioma using direct cortical and subcortical electrostimulation. The use of subcortical stimulation allowed identification of the specific white matter tracts associated with reading and writing. These tracts were found as portions of the dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus (IFOF) fibers in the deep parietal lobe that are responsible for connecting the frontal lobe to the superior parietal lobule. These findings are consistent with previous diffusion tensor imaging tractography and functional MRI studies, which suggest that the IFOF may play a role in the reading and writing processes. This is the first report of transient alexia and agraphia elicited through intraoperative direct subcortical electrostimulation, and the findings support the crucial role of the IFOF in reading and writing.