✓ Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is a major factor associated with incidences of morbidity and mortality in patients with neurological disorders. The use of conventional methods for ICP monitoring is currently limited to patients with severe neurological conditions because of the methods' invasive nature. The authors have developed an ultrasonic device capable of monitoring ICP waveforms noninvasively by using a pulsed phase lock loop (PPLL) technique. The PPLL device records skull movement (several meters) associated with ICP pulsations. The purpose of this study was to correlate PPLL waveforms with invasively measured ICP waveforms in patients at the University of California San Diego Medical Center (13 patients).
A linear regression analysis revealed a high correlation between PPLL waveforms and invasively measured ICP waveforms during the same time domain (r2 = 0.88). A coherence function analysis, which provides the fractional portion of the mean square value at the output that is contributed by the input at a certain frequency, showed medium to high correlations (r2 = 0.50–0.90) between PPLL waveforms and invasively measured ICP waveforms at each harmonic wave components. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.680, p < 0.01) in the harmonic distortion ratio (an index representing how much a given waveform is distorted from a pure sine wave) between PPLL waveforms and invasively measured ICP waveforms. In conclusion, PPLL technology enables the noninvasive evaluation of ICP dynamics in clinical settings.