Preoperative mood disorders such as depression and anxiety are known to be associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes after lumbar spine surgery. However, the effects of preoperative depression and anxiety on postoperative HRQOL outcomes and patient satisfaction in cervical compressive myelopathy are yet to be clarified. This study aimed to investigate the effect of depression and anxiety on HRQOL outcomes and patient satisfaction following surgery for cervical compressive myelopathy.
The authors reviewed the cases of all consecutive patients with cervical compressive myelopathy who had undergone surgical treatment in the period between January 2012 and March 2017 at their institution. Using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the authors classified patients as depressed (HADS-D+) or not depressed (HADS-D−) and anxious (HADS-A+) or not anxious (HADS-A−). Patient HRQOL was evaluated preoperatively and at the end of at least 1 year after surgery using the physical and mental component summaries of the SF-12 Health Survey, EQ-5D (EuroQol health survey of five dimensions), Neck Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale. Patient satisfaction was evaluated on the basis of a seven-item questionnaire and divided into two categories: satisfied and dissatisfied. Preoperative HRQOL statuses, postoperative improvements in HRQOL outcomes, and patient satisfaction were compared between the groups.
Among the 121 patients eligible for inclusion in the study, there were 69 patients (57.0%) without depression (HADS-D−) and 52 (43.0%) with depression (HADS-D+) and 82 patients (67.8%) without anxiety (HADS-A−) and 39 (32.2%) with anxiety (HADS-A+). All patients who completed both the preoperative and postoperative questionnaires had significant postoperative improvements in all HRQOL outcomes. The HADS-D+ and HADS-A+ patients had poorer preoperative HRQOL statuses than the HADS-D− and HADS-A− patients, respectively. However, statistically significant improvements in all HRQOL outcomes were observed in both HADS-D+ and HADS-A+ patients. Patient satisfaction was comparable between the HADS-D or HADS-A groups.
Cervical compressive myelopathy patients with preoperative depression or anxiety according to the HADS tool had worse preoperative HRQOL statuses. However, patients with cervical compressive myelopathy showed significant improvements in HRQOL outcomes and had sufficient levels of satisfaction after surgery regardless of the presence of preoperative depression or anxiety.