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Alexandria C. Marino, Thomas J. Buell, Rebecca M. Burke, Tony R. Wang, Chun-Po Yen, Christopher I. Shaffrey and Justin S. Smith

Three-column osteotomies (3COs) can achieve significant alignment correction when revising fixed sagittal plane deformities; however, the technique is associated with high complication rates. The authors demonstrate staged anterior-posterior surgery with L5–S1 ALIF (below a prior L3–5 fusion) and multilevel Smith-Petersen osteotomies to circumvent the morbidity associated with 3CO. The patient was a 67-year-old male with three prior lumbar surgeries who presented with back and leg pain. Imaging demonstrated lumbar flat back deformity and sagittal imbalance. The narrated video details key radiological measurements, operative planning and rationale, surgical steps, and outcomes. The patient provided written, informed consent for publication of this illustrative case.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/wv4W9D9fUPc.

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Randy S. D'Amico, George Zanazzi, Gunnar Hargus, Timothy Dyster, Shirley Chan, Angela Lignelli-Dipple, Tony J. C. Wang, Phyllis L. Faust and Guy M. McKhann II

Tufted angioma (TA) is a rare, slow-growing, vascular lesion that commonly presents as a solitary macule, papule, or nodule arising in the soft tissues of the torso, extremities, and head and neck in children and young adults. Adult-onset cases have been infrequently reported. While typically benign, TAs may be locally aggressive. Complete physical examination and hematological workup are recommended in patients with TA to exclude the presence of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP). The authors describe the case of a 69-year-old man with a contrast-enhancing frontal lobe lesion, with surrounding vasogenic edema, which was treated by gross-total resection. Characteristic histological features of a TA were demonstrated, with multiple cannonball-like tufts of densely packed capillaries emanating from intraparenchymal vessels in cerebral cortex and adjacent white matter. Tumor recurrence was detected after 4 months and treated with adjuvant Gamma Knife radiosurgery. To the extent of the authors' knowledge, this case illustrates the first report of TA presenting in an adult as an intracranial intraaxial tumor without associated KMP. The fairly rapid regrowth of this tumor, requiring adjuvant treatment after resection, is consistent with a potential for locally aggressive growth in a TA occurring in the brain.

Free access

Randy S. D'Amico, Matei A. Banu, Petros Petridis, Alexandra S. Bercow, Hani Malone, Moshe Praver, Tony J. C. Wang, Steven R. Isaacson and Michael B. Sisti

OBJECTIVE

Advanced microsurgical techniques contribute to reduced morbidity and improved surgical management of meningiomas arising within the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). However, the goal of surgery has evolved to preserve the quality of the patient's life, even if it means leaving residual tumor. Concurrently, Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has become an acceptable and effective treatment modality for newly diagnosed, recurrent, or progressive meningiomas of the CPA. The authors review their institutional experience with CPA meningiomas treated with GKRS, surgery, or a combination of surgery and GKRS. They specifically focus on rates of facial nerve preservation and characterize specific anatomical features of tumor location with respect to the internal auditory canal (IAC).

METHODS

Medical records of 76 patients with radiographic evidence or a postoperative diagnosis of CPA meningioma, treated by a single surgeon between 1992 and 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with CPA meningiomas smaller than 2.5 cm in greatest dimension were treated with GKRS, while patients with tumors 2.5 cm or larger underwent facial nerve–sparing microsurgical resection where appropriate. Various patient, clinical, and tumor data were gathered. Anatomical features of the tumor origin as seen on preoperative imaging confirmed by intraoperative investigation were evaluated for prognostic significance. Facial nerve preservation rates were evaluated.

RESULTS

According to our treatment paradigm, 51 (67.1%) patients underwent microsurgical resection and 25 (32.9%) patients underwent GKRS. Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 34 (66.7%) patients, and subtotal resection (STR) in 17 (33.3%) patients. Tumors recurred in 12 (23.5%) patients initially treated surgically, requiring additional surgery and/or GKRS. Facial nerve function was unchanged or improved in 68 (89.5%) patients. Worsening facial nerve function occurred in 8 (10.5%) patients, all of whom had undergone microsurgical resection. Upfront treatment with GKRS for CPA meningiomas smaller than 2.5 cm was associated with preservation of facial nerve function in all patients over a median follow-up of 46 months, regardless of IAC invasion and tumor origin. Anatomical origin was associated with extent of resection but did not correlate with postoperative facial nerve function. Tumor size, extent of resection, and the presence of an arachnoid plane separating the tumor and the contents of the IAC were associated with postoperative facial nerve outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

CPA meningiomas remain challenging lesions to treat, given their proximity to critical neurovascular structures. GKRS is a safe and effective option for managing CPA meningiomas smaller than 2.5 cm without associated mass effect or acute neurological symptoms. Maximal safe resection with preservation of neurological function can be performed for tumors 2.5 cm or larger without significant risk of facial nerve dysfunction, and, when combined with GKRS for recurrence and/or progression, provides excellent disease control. Anatomical features of the tumor origin offer critical insights for optimizing facial nerve preservation in this cohort.

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Andrew L. A. Garton, Connor J. Kinslow, Ali I. Rae, Amol Mehta, Susan C. Pannullo, Rajiv S. Magge, Rohan Ramakrishna, Guy M. McKhann, Michael B. Sisti, Jeffrey N. Bruce, Peter Canoll, Simon K. Cheng, Adam M. Sonabend and Tony J. C. Wang

OBJECTIVE

Genomic analysis in neurooncology has underscored the importance of understanding the patterns of survival in different molecular subtypes within gliomas and their responses to treatment. In particular, diffuse gliomas are now principally characterized by their mutation status (IDH1 and 1p/19q codeletion), yet there remains a paucity of information regarding the prognostic value of molecular markers and extent of resection (EOR) on survival. Furthermore, given the modern emphasis on molecular rather than histological diagnosis, it is important to examine the effect of maximal resection on survival in all gliomas with 1p/q19 codeletions, as these will now be classified as oligodendrogliomas under the new WHO guidelines.

The objectives of the present study were twofold: 1) to assess the association between EOR and survival for patients with oligodendrogliomas in the National Cancer Database (NCDB), which includes information on mutation status, and 2) to demonstrate the same effect for all patients with 1p/19q codeleted gliomas in the NCDB.

METHODS

The NCDB was queried for all cases of oligodendroglioma between 2004 and 2014, with follow-up dates through 2016. The authors found 2514 cases of histologically confirmed oligodendrogliomas for the final analysis of the effect of EOR on survival. Upon further query, 1067 1p/19q-codeleted tumors were identified in the NCDB. Patients who received subtotal resection (STR) or gross-total resection (GTR) were compared to those who received no tumor debulking surgery. Univariable and multivariable analyses of both overall survival and cause-specific survival were performed.

RESULTS

EOR was associated with increased overall survival for both histologically confirmed oligodendrogliomas and all 1p/19q-codeleted–defined tumors (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Tumor grade, location, and size covaried predictably with EOR. When evaluating tumors by each classification system for predictors of overall survival, facility setting, age, comorbidity index, grade, location, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy were all shown to be significantly associated with overall survival. While STR and GTR correlated with a stepwise increase in survival in oligodendrogliomas relative to biopsy (HR 0.70, p < 0.01; HR 0.51, p < 0.001, respectively), only GTR was observed to have the same effect in patients with 1p/19q-codeleted–defined tumors (HR 0.49, p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS

By using the NCDB, the authors have demonstrated a side-by-side comparison of the survival benefits of greater EOR in 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas.