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Hironobu Sakaura, Toshitada Miwa, Tomoya Yamashita, Yusuke Kuroda and Tetsuo Ohwada

OBJECTIVE

Several biomechanical studies have demonstrated the favorable mechanical properties of the cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw. However, no reports have examined surgical outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with CBT screw fixation for degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) compared with those after PLIF using traditional pedicle screw (PS) fixation. The purposes of this study were thus to elucidate surgical outcomes after PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS and to compare these results with those after PLIF using traditional PS fixation.

METHODS

Ninety-five consecutive patients underwent PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS (CBT group; mean followup 35 months). A historical control group consisted of 82 consecutive patients who underwent PLIF with traditional PS fixation (PS group; mean follow-up 40 months). Clinical status was assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale score. Fusion status was assessed by dynamic plain radiographs and CT. The need for additional surgery and surgery-related complications was also evaluated.

RESULTS

The mean JOA score improved significantly from 13.7 points before surgery to 23.3 points at the latest follow-up in the CBT group (mean recovery rate 64.4%), compared with 14.4 points preoperatively to 22.7 points at final follow-up in the PS group (mean recovery rate 55.8%; p < 0.05). Solid spinal fusion was achieved in 84 patients from the CBT group (88.4%) and in 79 patients from the PS group (96.3%, p > 0.05). Symptomatic adjacent-segment disease developed in 3 patients from the CBT group (3.2%) compared with 9 patients from the PS group (11.0%, p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS provided comparable improvement of clinical symptoms with PLIF using traditional PS fixation. However, the successful fusion rate tended to be lower in the CBT group than in the PS group, although the difference was not statistically significant between the 2 groups.

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Hironobu Sakaura, Yukihiko Yasui, Toshitada Miwa, Tomoya Yamashita, Kenji Ohzono and Tetsuo Ohwada

The authors report a case of cervical myelopathy caused by invagination of the bilaterally separated lamina of the axis. They also present a literature review.

The patient was a previously healthy 68-year-old man with a 1-year history of slowly progressive gait disturbance, right-hand clumsiness, and right dominant sensory disturbance in his trunk and extremities. Both MRI and CT showed that the spinal cord was markedly compressed at the C2–3 level, on the right side, by a deeply invaginated anomalous lamina of the axis. A bilaterally separated lamina was also visible. The patient underwent removal of the anomalous invaginated fragment of the separated lamina and the spinous process of the axis. One year after surgery, his myelopathic symptoms had almost completely resolved.

Here, the authors present the case of a patient with an extremely rare anomaly of the lamina of the axis. The underlying pathogenesis of this anomaly could be the failure of the 2 chondrification centers on either side to fuse into a single ossification center. Surgical removal of the anomalous invaginated lamina produced a satisfactory outcome.

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Tomiya Matsumoto, Shinya Okuda, Takafumi Maeno, Tomoya Yamashita, Ryoji Yamasaki, Tsuyoshi Sugiura and Motoki Iwasaki

OBJECTIVE

The importance of spinopelvic balance and its implications for clinical outcomes after spinal arthrodesis has been reported in recent studies. However, little is known about the relationship between adjacent-segment disease (ASD) after lumbar arthrodesis and spinopelvic alignment. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between spinopelvic radiographic parameters and symptomatic ASD after L4–5 single-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF).

METHODS

This was a retrospective 1:5 matched case-control study. Twenty patients who had undergone revision surgery for symptomatic ASD after L4–5 PLIF and had standing radiographs of the whole spine before primary and revision surgeries were enrolled from 2005 to 2012. As a control group, 100 age-, sex-, and pathology-matched patients who had undergone L4–5 PLIF during the same period, had no signs of symptomatic ASD for more than 3 years, and had whole-spine radiographs at preoperation and last follow-up were selected. Mean age at the time of primary surgery was 68.9 years in the ASD group and 66.7 years in the control group. Several radiographic spinopelvic parameters were measured as follows: sagittal vertical axis (SVA), thoracic kyphosis (TK), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence (PI), lumbar lordosis (LL), and segmental lordosis at L4–5 (SL) in the sagittal view, and C7–central sacral vertical line (C7-CSVL) in the coronal view. Radiological parameters were compared between the groups.

RESULTS

No significant change was found between pre- and postoperative radiographic parameters in each group. In terms of preoperative radiographic parameters, the ASD group had significantly lower LL (40.7° vs 47.2°, p < 0.01) and significantly higher PT (27° vs 22.9°, p < 0.05) than the control group. SVA ≥ 50 mm was observed in 10 of 20 patients (50%) in the ASD group and in 21 of 100 patients (21%, p < 0.01) in the control group. PI-LL ≥ 10° was noted in 15 of 20 patients (75%) in the ASD group and in 40 of 100 patients (40%, p < 0.01) in the control group on preoperative radiographs. Postoperatively, the ASD group had significantly lower TK (22.5° vs 30.9°, p < 0.01) and lower LL (39.3° vs 48.1°, p < 0.05) than the control group had. PI-LL ≥ 10° was seen in 15 of 20 patients (75%) in the ASD group and in 43 of 100 patients (43%, p < 0.01) in the control group.

CONCLUSIONS

Preoperative global sagittal imbalance (SVA > 50 mm and higher PT), pre- and postoperative lower LL, and PI-LL mismatch were significantly associated with ASD. Therefore, even with a single-level PLIF, appropriate SL and LL should be obtained at surgery to improve spinopelvic sagittal imbalance. The results also suggest that the achievement of the appropriate LL and PI-LL prevents ASD after L4–5 PLIF.

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Hironobu Sakaura, Tomoya Yamashita, Toshitada Miwa, Kenji Ohzono and Tetsuo Ohwada

Object

A systematic review concerning surgical management of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) showed that a satisfactory clinical outcome was significantly more likely with adjunctive spinal fusion than with decompression alone. However, the role of adjunctive fusion and the optimal type of fusion remain controversial. Therefore, operative management for multilevel DS raises more complicated issues. The purpose of this retrospective study was to elucidate clinical and radiological outcomes after 2-level PLIF for 2-level DS with the least bias in determination of operative procedure.

Methods

Since 2005, all patients surgically treated for lumbar DS at the authors' hospital have been treated using posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with pedicle screws, irrespective of severity of slippage, patient age, or bone quality. The authors conducted a retrospective review of 20 consecutive cases involving patients who underwent 2-level PLIF for 2-level DS and had been followed up for 2 years or longer (2-level PLIF group). They also analyzed data from 92 consecutive cases involving patients who underwent single-level PLIF for single-level DS during the same time period and had been followed for at least 2 years (1-level PLIF group). This second group served as a control. Clinical status was assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Fusion status and sagittal alignment of the lumbar spine were assessed by comparing serial plain radiographs. Surgery-related complications and the need for additional surgery were evaluated.

Results

The mean JOA score improved significantly from 12.8 points before surgery to 20.4 points at the latest follow-up in the 2-level PLIF group (mean recovery rate 51.8%), and from 14.2 points preoperatively to 22.5 points at the latest follow-up in the single-level PLIF group (mean recovery rate 55.3%). At the final follow-up, 95.0% of patients in the 2-level PLIF group and 96.7% of those in the 1-level PLIF group had achieved solid spinal fusion, and the mean sagittal alignment of the lumbar spine was more lordotic than before surgery in both groups. Early surgery-related complications, including transient neurological complications, occurred in 6 patients in the 2-level PLIF group (30.0%) and 11 patients in the 1-level PLIF group (12.0%). Symptomatic adjacent-segment disease was found in 4 patients in the 2-level PLIF group (20.0%) and 10 patients in the 1-level PLIF group (10.9%).

Conclusions

The clinical outcome of 2-level PLIF for 2-level lumbar DS was satisfactory, although surgery-related complications including symptomatic adjacent-segment disease were not negligible.

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Hironobu Sakaura, Toshitada Miwa, Tomoya Yamashita, Yusuke Kuroda and Tetsuo Ohwada

OBJECTIVE

The cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw technique is a new nontraditional pedicle screw (PS) insertion method. However, the biomechanical behavior of multilevel CBT screw/rod fixation remains unclear, and surgical outcomes in patients after 2-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using CBT screw fixation have not been reported. Thus, the purposes of this study were to examine the clinical and radiological outcomes after 2-level PLIF using CBT screw fixation for 2-level degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DS) and to compare these outcomes with those after 2-level PLIF using traditional PS fixation.

METHODS

The study included 22 consecutively treated patients who underwent 2-level PLIF with CBT screw fixation for 2-level DS (CBT group, mean follow-up 39 months) and a historical control group of 20 consecutively treated patients who underwent 2-level PLIF using traditional PS fixation for 2-level DS (PS group, mean follow-up 35 months). Clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system. Bony union was assessed by dynamic plain radiographs and CT images. Surgery-related complications, including symptomatic adjacent-segment disease (ASD), were examined.

RESULTS

The mean operative duration and intraoperative blood loss were 192 minutes and 495 ml in the CBT group and 218 minutes and 612 ml in the PS group, respectively (p < 0.05 and p > 0.05, respectively). The mean JOA score improved significantly from 12.3 points before surgery to 21.1 points (mean recovery rate 54.4%) at the latest follow-up in the CBT group and from 12.8 points before surgery to 20.4 points (mean recovery rate 51.8%) at the latest follow-up in the PS group (p > 0.05). Solid bony union was achieved at 90.9% of segments in the CBT group and 95.0% of segments in the PS group (p > 0.05). Symptomatic ASD developed in 2 patients in the CBT group (9.1%) and 4 patients in the PS group (20.0%, p > 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Two-level PLIF with CBT screw fixation for 2-level DS could be less invasive and result in improvement of clinical symptoms equal to those of 2-level PLIF using traditional PS fixation. The incidence of symptomatic ASD and the rate of bony union were lower in the CBT group than in the PS group, although these differences were not significant.

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Junichi Kushioka, Tomoya Yamashita, Shinya Okuda, Takafumi Maeno, Tomiya Matsumoto, Ryoji Yamasaki and Motoki Iwasaki

OBJECTIVE

Tranexamic acid (TXA), a synthetic antifibrinolytic drug, has been reported to reduce blood loss in orthopedic surgery, but there have been few reports of its use in spine surgery. Previous studies included limitations in terms of different TXA dose regimens, different levels and numbers of fused segments, and different surgical techniques. Therefore, the authors decided to strictly limit TXA dose regimens, surgical techniques, and fused segments in this study. There have been no reports of using TXA for prevention of intraoperative and postoperative blood loss in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of high-dose TXA in reducing blood loss and its safety during single-level PLIF.

METHODS

The study was a nonrandomized, case-controlled trial. Sixty consecutive patients underwent single-level PLIF at a single institution. The first 30 patients did not receive TXA. The next 30 patients received 2000 mg of intravenous TXA 15 minutes before the skin incision was performed and received the same dose again 16 hours after the surgery. Intra- and postoperative blood loss was compared between the groups.

RESULTS

There were no statistically significant differences in preoperative parameters of age, sex, body mass index, preoperative diagnosis, or operating time. The TXA group experienced significantly less intraoperative blood loss (mean 253 ml) compared with the control group (mean 415 ml; p < 0.01). The TXA group also had significantly less postoperative blood loss over 40 hours (mean 321 ml) compared with the control group (mean 668 ml; p < 0.01). Total blood loss in the TXA group (mean 574 ml) was significantly lower than in the control group (mean 1080 ml; p < 0.01). From 2 hours to 40 hours, postoperative blood loss in the TXA group was consistently significantly lower. There were no perioperative complications, including thromboembolic events.

CONCLUSIONS

High-dose TXA significantly reduced both intra- and postoperative blood loss without causing any complications during or after single-level PLIF.

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Tomoya Yamashita, Hironobu Sakaura, Kazuya Oshima, Motoki Iwasaki and Hideki Yoshikawa

The authors report on the case of a 64-year-old man with solitary intradural extramedullary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cervical spine. The lesion mimicked the appearance of meningioma on MR imaging. Positron emission tomography showed increased accumulation of fluorine-18–labeled fluorodeoxyglucose only in the cervical lesion. Serum levels of C-reactive protein and soluble interleukin-2 receptor were mildly elevated. At surgery, the intradural tumor in the subarachnoid space was totally extirpated. Based on histopathological findings, diffuse, large B-cell type non-Hodgkin lymphoma was diagnosed. Postoperatively, the patient was treated with 2 courses of chemotherapy by intrathecal injection of methotrexate, cytarabine, and prednisolone and 4 courses of intravenous rituximab, an antibody binding to CD20 on the surface of B cells. All preoperative symptoms completely resolved after surgery. Two years postoperatively, the patient was faring well with no evidence of local recurrence or new lesions at any other site. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the first reported instance of solitary intradural extramedullary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cervical spine.

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Yi-Syuan Li, Chun-Yu Chen, Chi-Hui Chen, Zhi-Kang Yao, Yu-Hsiang Sung, Kai-Cheng Lin, Yih-Wen Tarng, Chien-Jen Hsu and Jenn-Huei Renn