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Takayuki Ishikawa, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Yuichi Nagata, Jungsu Choo, Teppei Kawabata, Tomotaka Ishizaki, and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

OBJECTIVE

Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is commonly used for anterior skull base surgery, especially in the sella turcica (sellar) region. However, because of its anatomical position, CSF leakage is a major complication of this approach. The authors introduced a new grading reconstruction strategy for anterior skull base surgery with continuous dural suturing in 2013. In this paper the authors report on their methods and results.

METHODS

All patients with sellar or anterior skull base lesions that were removed with TSS or extended TSS by a single neurosurgeon between April 2013 and March 2017 at Nagoya University Hospital and several cooperating hospitals were retrospectively identified. Three methods of suturing dura were considered, depending on the dural defect.

RESULTS

There were 176 TSS cases (141 conventional TSS cases and 35 extended endoscopic TSS cases) and 76 cases of Esposito’s grade 2 or 3 intradural high-flow CSF leakage. In the high-flow CSF leak group, there were 3 cases of CSF leakage after the operation. The rates of CSF leakage after surgery corresponding to grades 2 and 3 were 2.9% (1/34) and 4.7% (2/42), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Dural suturing is a basic and key method for reconstruction of the skull base, and continuous suturing is the most effective approach. Using this approach, the frequency of cases requiring a nasoseptal flap and lumbar drainage can be reduced.

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Jun Torii, Satoshi Maesawa, Daisuke Nakatsubo, Takahiko Tsugawa, Sachiko Kato, Tomotaka Ishizaki, Sou Takai, Masashi Shibata, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Takashi Tsuboi, Masashi Suzuki, and Ryuta Saito

OBJECTIVE

The efficacy of magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) ablation for essential tremor (ET) is well known; however, no prognostic factors have been established. The authors aimed to retrospectively investigate MRgFUS ablation outcomes and associated factors and to define the cutoff values for each prognostic factor.

METHODS

Sixty-four Japanese patients who underwent unilateral ventral intermediate nucleus thalamotomy with MRgFUS for ET were included. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Tremor suppression was evaluated using the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST), and adverse effects were recorded postoperatively. Outcome-associated factors were examined preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively using multivariate analyses. The cutoff values for the prognostic factors were calculated using receiver operating characteristics.

RESULTS

Percentage improvements in the CRST scores of the affected upper limb were 82.4%, 72.2%, 68.6%, and 65.9% at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Preoperatively, a high skull density ratio (SDR) (p ≤ 0.047), low CRST part B score (used to assess tremors during several tasks) (cutoff value 25, p ≤ 0.041), and nonoccurrence of resting tremors (p = 0.027) were significantly associated with improved tremor control. An intraoperatively high maximum mean temperature (cutoff value 52.5°C, p ≤ 0.047), postoperatively large lesion (cutoff value 3.9 mm in the anterior-posterior direction, p ≤ 0.002; cutoff value 5.0–5.55 mm in the superior-inferior direction, p ≤ 0.026), and small transducer focus correction (p ≤ 0.015) were also associated with improved tremor control. No valid cutoff value was found for SDR. Adverse effects (limb weakness, sensory disturbance, ataxia/walking disturbance, dysgeusia, dysarthria, and facial swelling) occurred transiently and were associated with high SDR, high temperature, high number of sonication sessions, large lesion, and occurrence of resting tremor. Patients who developed leg weakness experienced greater percentage improvement in tremors at 3 months postoperatively than those who did not.

CONCLUSIONS

MRgFUS ablation could be used to achieve good tremor control with acceptable adverse effects in Japanese patients with ET. The relatively low SDR in Asian ethnic groups as compared with that of Western populations makes treatment difficult; however, the cutoff values obtained in this study may be useful for achieving good treatment outcomes even in such patients.

Clinical trial registration no.: UMIN000026952 (University Hospital Medical Information Network)