Tomohide Hayashi, Seiji Yamamoto, Takeru Hamashima, Hisashi Mori, Masakiyo Sasahara and Satoshi Kuroda
This study aimed to clarify the underlying mechanism of pathognomonic angiogenesis between the temporal muscle and neocortex after indirect bypass for moyamoya disease by shedding light on the role of platelet-derived growth factor receptor–α (PDGFRα) in angiogenesis.
The gene for PDGFRα was systemically inactivated in adult mice (α-KO mice). The Pdgfra-preserving mice (Flox mice) and α-KO mice were exposed to bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) by using microcoils. One week later the animals underwent encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS) on the right side. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was serially measured using a laser Doppler flowmeter. Histological analysis was performed on the distribution of CD31-positive vessels and collagen deposit at 28 days after BCAS. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to assess the expression of collagen mRNA in the skin fibroblasts derived from Flox and α-KO mice.
BCAS significantly reduced CBF up to approximately 70% of the control level at 28 days after the onset. There was no significant difference in CBF between Flox and α-KO mice. EMS significantly enhanced the improvement of CBF on the ipsilateral side of Flox mice, but not α-KO mice. EMS significantly induced the development of CD31-positive vessels in both the neocortex and temporal muscle on the ipsilateral side of Flox mice, but not α-KO mice. Deposition of collagen was distinctly observed between them in Flox mice, but not α-KO mice. Expression of mRNA of collagen type 1 alpha 1 (Col1a1) and collagen type 3 alpha 1 (Col3a1) was significantly downregulated in the skin fibroblasts from α-KO mice.
This is the first study that denotes the role of a specific growth factor in angiogenesis after EMS for moyamoya disease by inactivating its gene in mice. The findings strongly suggest that PDGFRα signal may play an important role in developing spontaneous angiogenesis between the temporal muscle and neocortex after EMS in moyamoya disease.
Daina Kashiwazaki, Naoki Akioka, Naoya Kuwayama, Tomohide Hayashi, Kyo Noguchi, Kortaro Tanaka and Satoshi Kuroda
The roles of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the development of carotid plaque are still obscure. This study aimed to clarify this by assessing the histological findings of specimens obtained from carotid endarterectomy.
This study included 34 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. MR imaging was performed to semiquantitatively analyze the components of the carotid plaques in all patients. The surgical specimens were subjected to immunohistochemistry. The distributions of the CD34-, CD133-, VEGF-2R–positive cells in the carotid plaques were precisely analyzed, and their number was quantified. Simultaneously, the CD34-positive microvessels were localized.
The plaque component was judged as lipid-rich plaque in 19 patients, intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) in 11 patients, and fibrous plaque in 4 patients. The CD34-positive microvessels were densely distributed in the plaque shoulder and interface-to-media regions. The CD34-, CD133-, and VEGF-2R–positive cells were mainly localized around the CD34-positive microvessels. The number of CD34-positive microvessels significantly correlated with the number of CD34-, CD133-, and VEGF-2R–positive cells (R = 0.308, p = 0.009; R = 0.324, p = 0.006; and R = 0.296, p = 0.013, respectively). Vulnerable plaques (lipid-rich and IPH) had significantly higher numbers of the CD34-positive microvessels (p = 0.007) and CD34-, CD133-, and VEGF-2R–positive cells than fibrous plaques (p = 0.031, p = 0.013, and p = 0.002).
These findings strongly suggest that neovascularization in the plaque shoulder and interface-to-media regions may play a key role in delivering EPCs from the peripheral blood to the carotid plaque, promoting the growth of carotid plaque. Furthermore, the invaded EPCs, especially the CD133-positive immature EPCs, may be related to plaque vulnerability.