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Chifumi Kitanaka, Tadashi Morimoto, Tomio Sasaki, and Kintomo Takakura

✓ The authors present the case of a patient with vertebral artery dissection that rebled after being treated by proximal clipping. This is the second report of such a case. The results indicated that proximal clipping is not free from the risk of rebleeding, and a better alternative surgical technique should always be sought when treating vertebral artery dissections.

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Kazuya Nagata, Tomio Sasaki, and Norihiko Basugi

✓ A radiopaque synthetic sponge is proposed as a prosthesis for microvascular decompression. Displacement of the prosthesis can be easily detected on a plain x-ray skull film.

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Masatou Kawashima, Toshio Matsushima, and Tomio Sasaki

Object. Most distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysms arise at the pericallosal—callosomarginal artery (PerA—CMA) junction, which is usually located in the A3 segment of the ACA around the genu of the corpus callosum. Aneurysms in the PerA—CMA junction are divided into two types according to their location: supracallosal and infracallosal. Infracallosal distal ACA aneurysms are defined as those located in the lower half of the A3 segment, which makes it more difficult to gain proximal control. In this study, the authors examined the microsurgical anatomy of the distal ACA region, focusing especially on the relationship between the PerA and CMA located in the lower half of the A3 (infracallosal) segment, and present a surgical strategy for dealing with distal ACA aneurysms.

Methods. The microsurgical anatomy of the distal ACA region was examined in 22 adult cadaveric cerebral hemispheres after perfusion of the arteries and veins with colored silicone. The relationships of the infracallosal segment of the PerA to the CMA and the A2 segment of the PerA to the frontopolar artery were examined. The distance between the nasion and the site at which a parallel line directed along the long axis of the infracallosal PerA just proximal to the origin of the CMA artery crosses the forehead (which we have named the PC point) was also measured. Surgical approaches to distal ACA aneurysms were examined in stepwise dissections.

Conclusions. The PerA—CMA junctions were located in the supracallosal and infracallosal segments of A3 in 36 and 55% of cases, respectively. In the infracallosal region, it was difficult to identify the proximal PerA and to establish proximal control of the vessel. The infracallosal part of the proximal PerA coursed almost parallel to the frontal cranial base, and the PC point was 42.2 ± 15.9 mm (mean ± standard deviation) from the nasion. These findings indicate that there is only a limited space in which to access an infracallosal distal ACA aneurysm below the PC point and establish proximal control by the anterior interhemispheric approach. When the approach is made above the PC point, an anterior callosotomy may be necessary to establish proximal control before final aneurysm dissection and clip placement are completed. The PC point is an important surgical landmark in planning the surgical strategy for infracallosal distal ACA aneurysms.

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Shouichi Itoh, Tomio Sasaki, Akio Asai, and Yoshiyuki Kuchino

✓ The authors investigated the roles of endothelin (ET)-1 and the ETA receptor in the pathogenesis of delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A study was made of the preventive effect of a novel ETA receptor antagonist, BQ-123, on vasospasm and the expression of the ETA receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) using a canine two-hemorrhage SAH model. Continuous intrathecal administration of BQ-123 (5 × 10−6 mol/day) prevented narrowing of the basilar artery on Day 7 after SAH in 97.6% of cases in the study group versus 70.7% of cases in the control group (p < 0.05). While expression of the mRNA-coding ETA receptor was not detected in the control animals, it markedly increased on Day 3 after SAH and was also detected on Day 7. The results suggest that endothelin-1 and the ETA receptor participate in the pathogenesis of delayed cerebral vasospasm following SAH.

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Jun-ichi Adachi, Katsumi Ohbayashi, Tomonari Suzuki, and Tomio Sasaki

Object. Genetic alterations of the PTEN gene (also known as MMAC1 or TEP1) have frequently been identified in high-grade gliomas, indicating that inactivation of PTEN plays a crucial role in human glioma progression. The aim of this study was to assess the biological significance of PTEN inactivation in the development of glioma.

Methods. The authors introduced wild-type PTEN complementary DNA into four human glioma cell lines (T98G, U-251MG, U-87MG, and A172) containing endogenous aberrant PTEN alleles. The number of colonies transfected with the wild-type PTEN was reduced to 15 to 32% of those found after transfection of a control vector, suggesting growth suppression by the exogenous PTEN. To analyze phenotypic alterations produced by PTEN expression, T98G-derived clones with inducible PTEN expression were further established using a tetracycline-regulated inducible gene expression system. Induction of PTEN expression suppressed the in vitro growth of T98G cells with accumulation of G1 phase cells. Furthermore, when cells were cultured in the presence of the extracellular matrix (ECM), PTEN expression caused distinct morphological changes, with multiple and elongated cytoplasmic processes similar to those of normal astrocytes. The level of glial fibrillary acidic protein, an intermediate protein specifically expressed in differentiated astrocytes, was upregulated concomitantly.

Conclusions. These findings strongly indicate that exogenous PTEN expression inhibits the proliferation of glioma cells by inducing G1 arrest and elicits astrocytic differentiation in the presence of the ECM. Inactivation of PTEN would play an important role in the enhancement of unregulated growth of undifferentiated glioma cells.

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Tomio Sasaki, Susumu Wakai, Takao Asano, Kintomo Takakura, and Keiji Sano

✓ The efficacy of thromboxane synthetase inhibitor in the prevention of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was evaluated in a prolonged experiment using dogs. Changes in the diameter of the basilar artery were followed by angiography, and morphological changes were studied by photomicroscopy and electron microscopy. As a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, OKY-1581 (sodium-(E)-3-(4(-3-pyridylmethyl)phenyl)-2-methylacrylate)was used. Dogs received intravenous injections of 160 mg of OKY-1581 dissolved in 2 ml of physiological saline immediately after subarachnoid blood injection. Subsequently, the animals received continuous intravenous infusion of the drug at the rate of 4 gm/50 ml/24 hours until sacrifice 4 days after induction of SAH. Control dogs received subarachnoid blood injection without treatment with OKY-1581.

Angiographic examination revealed that the late spasm was almost completely abolished by the treatment with OKY-1581. Early spasm was also prevented, but the drug's effect was less prominent than it was on the late spasm. Morphological study revealed degenerative changes in the endothelium and myonecrotic changes in the tunica media following SAH in the basilar arteries of the treated as well as the untreated dogs. However, corrugation of the internal elastic lamina was almost completely absent in the treated dogs.

The above results indicate that a disproportionate synthesis of thromboxane A2 plays an important role in the evolution of chronic cerebral vasospasm following SAH, and that drugs such as OKY-1581 that selectively inhibit thromboxane synthetase might be useful in the prevention of vasospasm.

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Katsuharu Kameda, Tadahisa Shono, Kimiaki Hashiguchi, Fumiaki Yoshida, and Tomio Sasaki

Object

Tinnitus is one of the most common symptoms in patients with vestibular schwannomas (VSs), but the effect of surgery on this symptom has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to define the effect on tinnitus of tumor removal, cochlear nerve resection, and useful hearing preservation in patients with VSs.

Methods

The authors retrospectively analyzed the status of tinnitus before and after surgery in 242 patients with unilateral VSs who underwent surgery via the retrosigmoid lateral suboccipital approach.

Results

Of 242 patients, 171 (70.7%) complained of tinnitus before surgery; the symptom disappeared in 25.2%, improved in 33.3%, remained unchanged in 31.6%, and worsened in 9.9% of these cases after tumor removal. In the 171 patients with preoperative tinnitus, the cochlear nerve was resected in 85 (49.7%) and preserved in 86 (50.3%), but there was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative tinnitus between these 2 groups (p = 0.293). In the 71 patients without preoperative tinnitus, the symptom developed postoperatively in 6 cases (8.5%). Among those without preoperative tinnitus, the cochlear nerve was resected in 45 cases (63.4%) and tinnitus appeared postoperatively in 3 (6.7%). The authors also analyzed the association between postoperative tinnitus and useful hearing preservation, but could not find any statistically significant association between the 2 factors (p = 0.153).

Conclusions

Tumor removal via the retrosigmoid lateral suboccipital approach may provide some chance for improvement of tinnitus in patients with VSs; however, neither cochlear nerve resection nor useful hearing preservation affects the postoperative development of tinnitus.

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Yasushi Miyagi, Fumio Shima, and Tomio Sasaki

Object

The goal of this study was to focus on the tendency of brain shift during stereotactic neurosurgery and the shift's impact on the unilateral and bilateral implantation of electrodes for deep brain stimulation (DBS).

Methods

Eight unilateral and 10 bilateral DBS electrodes at 10 nuclei ventrales intermedii and 18 subthalamic nuclei were implanted in patients at Kaizuka Hospital with the aid of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–guided and microelectrode-guided methods. Brain shift was assessed as changes in the 3D coordinates of the anterior and posterior commissures (AC and PC) with MR images before and immediately after the implantation surgery. The positions of the implanted electrodes, based on the midcommissural point and AC–PC line, were measured both on x-ray films (virtual position) during surgery and the postoperative MR images (actual position) obtained on the 7th day postoperatively.

Results

Contralateral and posterior shift of the AC and PC were the characteristics of unilateral and bilateral procedures, respectively. The authors suggest the following. 1) The first unilateral procedure elicits a unilateral air invasion, resulting in a contralateral brain shift. 2) During the second procedure in the bilateral surgery, the contralateral shift is reset to the midline and, at the same time, the anteroposterior support by the contralateral hemisphere against gravity is lost due to a bilateral air invasion, resulting in a significant posterior (caudal) shift.

Conclusions

To note the tendency of the brain to shift is very important for accurate implantation of a DBS electrode or high frequency thermocoagulation, as well as for the prediction of therapeutic and adverse effects of stereotactic surgery.