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Veronika Paštyková, Josef Novotný Jr., Tomáš Veselský, Dušan Urgošík, Roman Liščák and Josef Vymazal


The aim of this study was to compare 3 different methods to assess the geometrical distortion of two 1.5-T and one 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanners and to evaluate co-registration accuracy. The overall uncertainty of each particular method was also evaluated.


Three different MR phantoms were used: 2 commercial CIRS skull phantoms and PTGR known target phantom and 1 custom cylindrical Perspex phantom made in-house. All phantoms were fixed in the Leksell stereotactic frame and examined by a Siemens Somatom CT unit, two 1.5-T Siemens (Avanto and Symphony) MRI systems, and one 3-T Siemens (Skyra) MRI system. The images were evaluated using Leksell GammaPlan software, and geometrical deviation of the selected points from the reference values were determined. The deviations were further investigated for both definitions including fiducial-based and co-registration–based in the case of the CIRS phantom images. The same co-registration accuracy assessment was also performed for a clinical case. Patient stereotactic imaging was done on 3-T Skyra, 1.5-T Avanto, and CT scanners.


The accuracy of the CT scanner was determined as 0.10, 0.30, and 0.30 mm for X, Y, and Z coordinates, respectively. The total estimated uncertainty in distortion measurement in one coordinate was determined to be 0.32 mm and 0.14 mm, respectively, for methods using and not using CT as reference imaging. Slightly more significant distortions were observed when using the 3-T than either 1.5-T MR units. However, all scanners were comparable within the estimated measurement error. Observed deviation/distortion for individual X, Y, and Z stereotactic coordinates was typically within 0.50 mm for all 3 scanners and all 3 measurement methods employed. The total radial deviation/distortion was typically within 1.00 mm. Maximum total radial distortion was observed when the CIRS phantom was used; 1.08 ± 0.49 mm, 1.15 ± 0.48 mm, and 1.35 ± 0.49 mm for Symphony, Avanto, and Skyra, respectively. The co-registration process improved image stereotactic definition in a clinical case in which fiducial-based stereotactic definition was not accurate; this was demonstrated for 3-T stereotactic imaging in this study. The best results were shown for 3-T MR image co-registration with CT images improving image stereotactic definition by about 0.50 mm. The results obtained with patient data provided a similar trend of improvement in stereotactic definition by co-registration.


All 3 methods/phantoms used were evaluated as satisfactory for the image distortion measurement. The method using the PTGR phantom had the lowest uncertainty as no reference CT imaging was needed. Image co-registration can improve stereotactic image definition when fiducial-based definition is not accurate.

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Jakub Jonas, Miroslav Durila, Martin Malosek, Dagmar Maresova, Jan Stulik, Michal Barna and Tomas Vymazal


Surgical correction of scoliosis in pediatric patients is associated with significant blood loss. Rotational thrombelastometry (ROTEM) might help to decrease the use of blood transfusion products by enabling an early point of care (POC) diagnosis of coagulopathy, thus helping to provide targeted therapy. The aim of this case-control study was to find out whether POC use of ROTEM during scoliosis surgery in children helps to reduce the need for blood transfusion products.


Data were prospectively analyzed from all patients treated during 2016–2018 who received ROTEM-based therapy during scoliosis surgery. These patients were compared with a group of historical controls treated during 2014–2016 whose scoliosis treatment did not include ROTEM. Perioperative blood loss, consumption of blood transfusion products, and hospital LOS were compared between the groups.


A total of 37 patients were analyzed, 22 patients in the non-ROTEM group and 15 patients in the ROTEM group. In the ROTEM group compared with the non-ROTEM group, there was significantly lower perioperative blood loss and administration of packed red blood cell units, no administration of fresh-frozen plasma, and shorter overall hospital LOS (p < 0.05).


ROTEM use during scoliosis surgery in children seems to help to decrease blood loss and the use of blood transfusion products and may also shorten the hospital LOS.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT03699813 (

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Josef Novotný Jr., Josef Novotný, Václav Spĕvác˘ek, Pavel Dvor˘ák, Tomás˘ Cechák, Roman Lis˘c˘ák, Gustav Broz˘ek, Jaroslav Tintĕra and Josef Vymazal

Object. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a polymer gel—based dosimeter for the evaluation of geometric and dosimetric inaccuracies during gamma knife radiosurgery and during the irradiation of an experimental animal.

Methods. A polymer gel dosimeter, based on acrylic monomers, was used for experiments conducted in this study. The accuracy of the dosimeter was evaluated on a Siemens EXPERT 1-tesla scanner in the transmitter/receiver head coil with the use of a multiecho sequence with 16 echoes, TE 22.5 to 360 msec, TR 2000 msec, slice thickness 2 mm, field of view 255 mm, and a pixel size of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2. Two experiments were conducted. First, the head phantom containing the polymer gel dosimeter was irradiated using 4-, 8-, 14-, and 18-mm isocenters. Second, a specially designed rat phantom was irradiated by four 4-mm isocenters. The dose profiles in the x, y, and z axes were calculated in the treatment planning system and measured with the polymer gel dosimeter and the results were compared.

There was good agreement between the measured and calculated dose profiles. The maximum deviation in the spatial position of the center of measured and calculated dose profiles was 0.5 mm in the head phantom and 1 mm in the rat phantom. The maximum deviation in the width of the selected reference isodose of measured profiles was 1.2 mm in the head phantom and 1.1 mm in the rat phantom.

Conclusions. The use of the polymer gel—based dosimeter for the verification of stereotactic procedures has advantages compared with other dosimetric systems. The dosimeter itself is tissue equivalent. Three-dimensional dose distributions can be measured and the dosimeter allows simulation of the therapeutic procedures.

Free access

Roman Liscak, Dusan Urgosik, Tomas Chytka, Gabriela Simonova, Josef Novotny Jr., Josef Vymazal, Khumar Guseynova and Vilibald Vladyka


Glomus tumors usually display indolent behavior, and the effectiveness of radiation in stopping their growth can be assessed after long-term follow-up. Currently only midterm results of radiosurgery are available, so the authors included patients treated by Gamma Knife at least 10 years ago in this study to obtain a perspective of long-term results.


During the period from 1992 to 2003, the Gamma Knife was used to treat 46 patients with glomus tumors. The age of the patients ranged from 21 to 79 years (median 56 years). Gamma Knife radiosurgery was the primary treatment in 17 patients (37%). Open surgery preceded radiosurgery in 46% of cases, embolization in 17%, and fractionated radiotherapy in 4%. The volume of the tumor ranged from 0.2 to 24.3 cm3 (median 3.6 cm3). The minimal dose to the tumor margin ranged between 10 and 30 Gy (median 20 Gy).


One patient was lost for follow-up after radiosurgery. Clinical follow-up was available in 45 patients and 44 patients were followed with MRI in a follow-up period that ranged from 12 to 217 months (median 118 months). Neurological deficits improved in 19 (42%) of 45 patients and deteriorated in 2 patients (4%). Tumor size decreased in 34 (77%) of 44 patients with imaging follow-up, while an increase in volume was observed in 1 patient (2%) 182 months after radiosurgery and Gamma Knife treatment was repeated. One patient underwent another Gamma Knife treatment for secondary induced meningioma close to the glomus tumor 98 months after initial radiosurgical treatment. Seven patients died 22–96 months after radiosurgery (median 48 months), all for unrelated reasons.


Radiosurgery has proved to be a safe treatment with a low morbidity rate and a reliable long-term antiproliferative effect.