Steven L. Gogela, Yair M. Gozal, Bin Zhang, Thomas A. Tomsick, Andrew J. Ringer, Joseph P. Broderick, Pooja Khatri and Todd A. Abruzzo
The impact of extracranial carotid stenosis on interventional revascularization of acute anterior circulation stroke is unknown. The authors examined the effects of high-grade carotid stenosis on the results of endovascular treatment of patients in the Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS)-III trial.
The 278 patients in the endovascular arm of the IMS-III trial were categorized according to the degree of carotid stenosis as determined by angiography. In comparing patients with severe stenosis or occlusion (≥ 70%) to those without severe stenosis (< 70%), the authors evaluated the time to endovascular reperfusion, modified Thrombolysis in Cerebrovascular Infarction (mTICI) scores, 24-hour mean infarct volumes, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage rates, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 90 days.
Compared with the 249 patients with less than 70% stenosis, patients with severe stenosis (n = 29) were found to have a significantly longer mean time to reperfusion (105.7 vs 77.7 minutes, p = 0.004); differences in mTICI scores, infarct volumes, hemorrhage rates, and mRS scores at 90 days did not reach statistical significance. Multiple regression analysis revealed that severe carotid stenosis (p < 0.0001) and higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (p = 0.004) were associated with an increase in time to reperfusion. Older age (p < 0.0001), higher NIHSS score (p < 0.0001), and the absence of reperfusion (p = 0.001) were associated with worse clinical outcomes.
Severe ipsilateral ICA stenosis was associated with a significantly longer time to reperfusion in the IMS-III trial. Although these findings may not translate directly to modern devices, this 28-minute delay in reperfusion has significant implications, raising concern over the treatment of tandem ICA stenosis and downstream large-vessel occlusion.
Ralph Rahme, Sharon D. Yeatts, Todd A. Abruzzo, Lincoln Jimenez, Liqiong Fan, Thomas A. Tomsick, Andrew J. Ringer, Anthony J. Furlan, Joseph P. Broderick and Pooja Khatri
The role of endovascular therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke and a solitary M2 occlusion remains unclear. Through a pooled analysis of 3 interventional stroke trials, the authors sought to analyze the impact of successful early reperfusion of M2 occlusions on patient outcome.
Patients with a solitary M2 occlusion were identified from the Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism (PROACT) II, Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS), and IMS II trial databases and were divided into 2 groups: successful reperfusion (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction [TICI] 2–3) at 2 hours and failed reperfusion (TICI 0–1) at 2 hours. Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared.
Sixty-three patients, 40 from PROACT II and 23 from IMS and IMS II, were identified. Successful early angiographic reperfusion (TICI 2–3) was observed in 31 patients (49.2%). No statistically significant difference in the rates of intracerebral hemorrhage (60.9% vs 47.6%, p = 0.55) or mortality (19.4% vs 15.6%, p = 0.75) was observed. However, there was a trend toward higher incidence of symptomatic hemorrhage in the TICI 2–3 group (17.4% vs 0%, p = 0.11). There was also a trend toward higher baseline glucose levels in this group (151.5 mg/dl vs 129.6 mg/ dl, p = 0.09). Despite these differences, the rate of functional independence (modified Rankin Scale Score 0–2) at 3 months was similar (TICI 2–3, 58.1% vs TICI 0–1, 53.1%; p = 0.80).
A positive correlation between successful early reperfusion and clinical outcome could not be demonstrated for patients with M2 occlusion. Irrespective of reperfusion status, such patients have better outcomes than those with more proximal occlusions, with more than 50% achieving functional independence at 3 months.
Alan M. Chen, Kunal B. Karani, J. Michael Taylor, Bin Zhang, Andrew Furthmiller, Gabriel De Vela, James L. Leach, Sudhakar Vadivelu and Todd A. Abruzzo
Although intracranial arterial aneurysms (IAAs) of childhood are usually idiopathic, it is possible that underlying arteriopathy escapes detection when using conventional diagnostic tools. Quantitative arterial tortuosity (QAT) has been studied as a biomarker of arteriopathy. The authors analyzed cervicocerebral QAT in children with idiopathic IAAs to assess the possibility of arteriopathy.
Cases were identified by text-string searches of imaging reports spanning the period January 1993 through June 2017. QAT of cervicocerebral arterial segments was measured from cross-sectional studies using image-processing software. Other imaging and clinical data were confirmed by retrospective electronic record review. Children with idiopathic IAAs and positive case controls, with congenital arteriopathy differentiated according to aneurysm status (with and without an aneurysm), were compared to each other and to healthy controls without vascular risk factors.
Cervicocerebral QAT was measured in 314 children: 24 with idiopathic IAAs, 163 with congenital arteriopathy (including 14 arteriopathic IAAs), and 127 healthy controls. QAT of all vertebrobasilar segments was larger in children with IAAs (idiopathic and arteriopathic forms) (p < 0.05). In children with congenital arteriopathy without an aneurysm, QAT was decreased for the distal cervical vertebral arteries and increased for the supraspinal vertebral artery relative to healthy children. QAT of specific cervicocerebral segments correlated with IAA size and rupture status.
Cervicocerebral QAT is a biomarker of arteriopathy in children with IAA, even in the absence of other disease markers. Additional findings suggest a correlation of cervicocerebral QAT with IAA size and rupture status and with the presence of IAA in children with congenital arteriopathy.