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Tammam Abboud, Cindy Schwarz, Manfred Westphal and Tobias Martens

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity and specificity between the novel threshold and amplitude criteria for motor evoked potentials (MEPs) monitoring after transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) during surgery for supratentorial lesions in the same patient cohort.

METHODS

One hundred twenty-six patients were included. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. Craniotomies did not expose motor cortex, so that direct mapping was less suitable. After TES, MEPs were recorded bilaterally from abductor pollicis brevis (APB), from orbicularis oris (OO), and/or from tibialis anterior (TA). The percentage increase in the threshold level was assessed and considered significant if it exceeded by more than 20% on the affected side the percentage increase on the unaffected side. Amplitude on the affected side was measured with a stimulus intensity of 150% of the threshold level set for each muscle.

RESULTS

Eighteen of 126 patients showed a significant change in the threshold level as well as an amplitude reduction of more than 50% in MEPs recorded from APB, and 15 of the patients had postoperative deterioration of motor function of the arm (temporary in 8 cases and permanent in 7 [true-positive and false-negative results]). Recording from TA was performed in 66 patients; 4 developed postoperative deterioration of motor function of the leg (temporary in 3 cases and permanent in 1), and showed a significant change in the threshold level, and an amplitude reduction of more than 50% occurred in 1 patient. An amplitude reduction of more than 50% occurred in another 10 patients, without a significant change in the threshold level or postoperative deterioration. Recording from OO was performed in 61 patients; 3 developed postoperative deterioration of motor function of facial muscles (temporary in 2 cases and permanent in 1) and had a significant change in the threshold level, and 2 of the patients had an amplitude reduction of more than 50%. Another 6 patients had an amplitude reduction of more than 50% but no significant change in the threshold level or postoperative deterioration.

Sensitivity of the threshold criterion was 100% when MEPs were recorded from APB, OO, or TA, and its specificity was 97%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Sensitivity of the amplitude criterion was 100%, 67%, and 25%, with a specificity of 97%, 90%, and 84%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The threshold criterion was comparable to the amplitude criterion with a stimulus intensity set at 150% of the threshold level regarding sensitivity and specificity when recording MEPs from APB, and superior to it when recording from TA or OO.

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Jose L. Sanmillan, Gerard Plans, Andreu Gabarrós and Isabel Fernández-Conejero

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Tammam Abboud, Miriam Schaper, Lasse Dührsen, Cindy Schwarz, Nils Ole Schmidt, Manfred Westphal and Tobias Martens

OBJECTIVE

Warning criteria for monitoring of motor evoked potentials (MEP) after direct cortical stimulation during surgery for supratentorial tumors have been well described. However, little is known about the value of MEP after transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in predicting postoperative motor deficit when monitoring threshold level. The authors aimed to evaluate the feasibility and value of this method in glioma surgery by using a new approach for interpreting changes in threshold level involving contra- and ipsilateral MEP.

METHODS

Between November 2013 and December 2014, 93 patients underwent TES-MEP monitoring during resection of gliomas located close to central motor pathways but not involving the primary motor cortex. The MEP were elicited by transcranial repetitive anodal train stimulation. Bilateral MEP were continuously evaluated to assess percentage increase of threshold level (minimum voltage needed to evoke a stable motor response from each of the muscles being monitored) from the baseline set before dural opening. An increase in threshold level on the contralateral side (facial, arm, or leg muscles contralateral to the affected hemisphere) of more than 20% beyond the percentage increase on the ipsilateral side (facial, arm, or leg muscles ipsilateral to the affected hemisphere) was considered a significant alteration. Recorded alterations were subsequently correlated with postoperative neurological deterioration and MRI findings.

RESULTS

TES-MEP could be elicited in all patients, including those with recurrent glioma (31 patients) and preoperative paresis (20 patients). Five of 73 patients without preoperative paresis showed a significant increase in threshold level, and all of them developed new paresis postoperatively (transient in 4 patients and permanent in 1 patient). Eight of 20 patients with preoperative paresis showed a significant increase in threshold level, and all of them developed postoperative neurological deterioration (transient in 4 patients and permanent in 4 patients). In 80 patients no significant change in threshold level was detected, and none of them showed postoperative neurological deterioration. The specificity and sensitivity in this series were estimated at 100%. Postoperative MRI revealed gross-total tumor resection in 56 of 82 patients (68%) in whom complete tumor resection was attainable; territorial ischemia was detected in 4 patients.

CONCLUSIONS

The novel threshold criterion has made TES-MEP a useful method for predicting postoperative motor deficit in patients who undergo glioma surgery, and has been feasible in patients with preoperative paresis as well as in patients with recurrent glioma. Including contra- and ipsilateral changes in threshold level has led to a high sensitivity and specificity.

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Malte Mohme, Friederike S. Fritzsche, Klaus C. Mende, Jakob Matschke, Ulrike Löbel, Gertrud Kammler, Manfred Westphal, Pedram Emami and Tobias Martens

OBJECTIVE

Tectal gliomas constitute a rare and inhomogeneous group of lesions with an uncertain clinical course. Because these supposedly benign tumors are frequently followed up by observation over many years, the authors undertook this analysis of their own case series in an effort to demonstrate that the clinical course is highly variable and that there is a potential for a progressive biology.

METHODS

Clinical data analysis of 23 cases of tectal glioma (involving 9 children and 14 adults) was performed retrospectively. Radiographic data were analyzed longitudinally and MR images were evaluated for tumor volume, contrast enhancement, and growth progression. Quality of life was assessed using the EORTC BN20 and C30 questionnaires during follow-up in a subgroup of patients.

RESULTS

The patients’ mean age at diagnosis was 29.2 years. The main presenting symptom at diagnosis was hydrocephalus (80%). Six patients were treated by primary tumor resection (26.1%), 3 patients underwent biopsy followed by resection (13.1%), and 3 patients underwent biopsy only (13.1%). For additional treatment of hydrocephalus, 14 patients (60.9%) received shunts and/or endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Radiographic tumor progression was observed in 47.9% of the 23 cases. The mean time between diagnosis and growth progression was 51.5 months, and the mean time to contrast enhancement was 69.7 months. Histopathological analysis was obtained in 12 cases (52.2%), resulting in 5 cases of high-grade glioma (3 cases of glioblastoma multiforme [GBM], grade IV, and 2 of anaplastic astrocytoma, grade III), 5 cases of pilocytic astrocytoma, 1 diffuse astrocytoma, and 1 ganglioglioma. Malignant progression was observed in 2 cases, with 1 case progressing from a diffuse astrocytoma (grade II) to a GBM (grade IV) within a period of 13 years. Quality-of-life measurements demonstrated distinct functional deficits compared to a healthy sample as well as glioma control cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS

Analysis of this case series shows that a major subpopulation of tectal gliomas show progression and malignant transformation in children as well as in adolescents. These tumors therefore cannot be considered inert lesions and require histological confirmation and close follow-up. Quality-of-life questionnaires show that tectal glioma patients might benefit from special psychological support in emotional, social, and cognitive functionality.

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Lasse Dührsen, Thomas Sauvigny, Patrick M. House, Stefan Stodieck, Brigitte Holst, Jakob Matschke, Gerhard Schön, Manfred Westphal and Tobias Martens

OBJECTIVE

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy, for which anterior mesial temporal lobe resection (AMTLR) is a treatment option. Focal cortical dysplasia Type IIIa (FCD IIIa), a developmental lesion resulting from defects in neuronal formation and migration into the temporal pole (FCD I) combined with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), can be a neuropathological finding. In this study, the authors investigate the impact of FCD IIIa on seizure outcome in patients with TLE who underwent AMTLR.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of all patients with TLE who underwent AMTLR at their institution between June 2011 and April 2014. Histopathological analysis was used to determine whether patients had HS together with FCD I (FCD IIIa) or HS alone. The groups were compared with regard to age, sex, years of epilepsy, and seizure outcome using the Engel classification.

RESULTS

A total of 51 patients with TLE underwent AMTLR at the authors’ institution. FCD IIIa was diagnosed in 13 cases. The patients experienced seizures for a mean duration of 31.1 years. The mean length of follow-up after the procedure was 18 months. All patients with FCD IIIa had a favorable seizure outcome (Engel Class I or II) compared with 71% of the patients with no pathological findings in the temporal pole (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with histopathologically proven FCD IIIa had a significantly better seizure outcome after AMTLR than patients with HS alone. Further effort should be made during presurgical evaluation to detect FCD IIIa so that the most suitable resection technique can be chosen and postoperative seizure outcome can be predicted for patient counseling.

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Sebastian Butscheidt, Marielle Ernst, Tim Rolvien, Jan Hubert, Jozef Zustin, Michael Amling and Tobias Martens

OBJECTIVE

Primary intraosseous meningioma (PIM) is a rare manifestation of meningioma, a benign, neoplastic lesion of the meninges. Its characteristic appearance is hyperostosis, while no or only minimal dural changes can be observed. This study aims to characterize this rare entity from both a clinical and histopathological point of view in order to improve clinical management.

METHODS

In the years 2009–2017, 26 cases of PIM were diagnosed using MRI and CT scans. In 16 cases the indication for resection was given, and specimens were further examined using a multilevel approach, including histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Additionally, the local database was searched for all cases of meningiomas, as well as osteosclerotic differential diagnoses—i.e., fibrous dysplasia, Paget’s disease of bone, and other benign osteosclerotic lesions.

RESULTS

In this study, PIM represented 2.4% of all meningiomas with a predominant occurrence in females (85%). Regarding the initial manifestation, PIMs show a slightly earlier onset than meningiomas. While most PIMs are located in the sphenoid bone, associated calcifications were visible in 58% of the cases on CT scans. Most of the cases were classified as WHO grade I (93%) and meningotheliomatous meningiomas (91%). Tumor growth was associated with an increased bone resorption followed by massive osteoid deposition and consecutive sclerosis. The frequently observed frayed appearance results from multiple bony canals, which contain blood vessels for the blood supply of the highly vascularized tumor tissue.

CONCLUSIONS

PIM is a rare but important differential diagnosis for osteosclerotic lesions of the skull, especially in women. Tumor-induced, cellular-mediated bone resorption and formation may play a central role in the underlying pathogenesis.