Object. The aim of this investigation was to address three questions in bilingualism research: 1) are multiple languages functionally separated within the bilingual brain; 2) are these languages similarly organized; and 3) does language organization in bilinguals mirror that in monolinguals?
Methods. During awake dominant-hemisphere craniotomy in each of 25 bilingual patients, the authors mapped both languages by using identical object-naming stimuli. Essential sites for primary (L1) and secondary (L2) languages were compared. Sites were photographically recorded and plotted onto an anatomically referenced grid system. Language organization in bilinguals was then compared with that in 117 monolinguals and 11 monolingual children.
Conclusions. The authors found distinct language-specific sites as well as shared sites that support both languages. The L1 and L2 representations were similar in total cortical extent but significantly different in anatomical distribution. The L2-specific sites were located exclusively in the posterior temporal and parietal regions, whereas the L1 and shared sites could be found throughout the mapped regions. Bilinguals possessed seven perisylvian language zones, in which L2 sites were significantly underrepresented when compared with the distribution of language sites in monolinguals. These L2-restricted zones overlapped the primary language areas found in monolingual children, indicating that these zones become dedicated to L1 processing. These findings support three conclusions. First, it is necessary to map both languages in bilinguals because L1 and L2 sites are functionally distinct. Second, differences exist in the organization of L1 and L2 sites, with L2-specific sites located exclusively in the posterior temporal and parietal lobes. Third, language organization comparisons in bilingual and monolingual brains demonstrate the presence of L2-restricted zones, which are dedicated to L1.