✓ A prospective study was designed to evaluate clinical outcome in a series of 100 consecutively treated patients who underwent endovascular embolization of 104 intracranial aneurysms using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). Midterm clinical outcome (2–6 years, average 3.5 years) was obtained for 94 patients and was classified according to a modified Glasgow Outcome Scale.
Of nine patients treated in the acute phase of severe subarachnoid hemorrhage (Grade IV or V), seven died from the initial hemorrhage, one had a poor outcome, and one had a fair midterm outcome, with no post-GDC embolization hemorrhages.
Twenty patients underwent subsequent surgical or endovascular procedures that did not include the use of GDCs. These included aneurysm clipping in nine patients and parent vessel sacrifice in 11 patients. None of these 20 patients experienced post-GDC embolization hemorrhage. The postoperative midterm clinical outcomes of these 20 patients did not significantly differ from the outcomes of patients who underwent GDC embolization as their definitive treatment.
Six patients died of unrelated causes prior to reaching the 2-year survival point, with no post-GDC embolization hemorrhage. The midterm outcomes of the remaining 61 patients who underwent GDC embolization as their definitive treatment were classified as excellent (46 patients [75%]), good (seven patients [11%]), fair (three patients [5%]), poor (one patient [2%]), or dead (four patients [7%]). All four patients died from giant lesions. At midterm follow up, the surviving 57 patients' neurological statuses were unchanged or improved in 54 cases and worsened in three cases. The midterm post-GDC embolization hemorrhage rate was 0% for small aneurysms, 4% (one case) for large aneurysms, and 33% (five cases) for giant lesions.
The GDC procedure is a safe, effective, and reliable means of preventing aneurysm hemorrhage in patients with small and large intracranial aneurysms. Results, however, are less satisfactory in cases involving giant lesions. Further follow-up review is necessary to establish durability in the longer term. Patients with Grade IV or V subarachnoid hemorrhage in this series generally had poor outcomes even if the GDC procedure was successful in occluding the aneurysm.