✓ On June 30, Mrs. Jean Lawe will step down as Managing Editor of the Journal of Neurosurgery. She has worked on the Journal since 1965, when Dr. Louise Eisenhardt retired as the first Editor. Since that time the Journal has grown in size and circulation, and production has become fully computerized. In her valedictory, Mrs. Lawe summarizes her years with the Journal and her approach to scientific editing.
Thoralf M. Sundt Jr.
Thoralf M. Sundt Jr.
✓ The author reviews a form of management for patients deteriorating preoperatively or postoperatively from apparent ischemia attributed to progressive vasospasm after a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The clinical picture and relative frequency of this complication are considered in relationship to the status (grade) of the patient, location of the aneurysm, and ultimate neurological recovery. Experience suggests that the drug regimen reported is useful when instituted early after the onset of symptoms and is safe with proper monitoring techniques. The data do not justify early operative intervention after a subarachnoid hemorrhage, operation when there is angiographic evidence of severe spasm, or expectation of a dramatic effect in patients with a profound deficit or a fixed deficit several hours old.
Thoralf M. Sundt Jr.
Thoralf M. Sundt III and Thoralf M. Sundt Jr.
✓ Experience in cardiovascular and peripheral vascular surgery with saphenous vein bypass conduits is reviewed. It is clear that meticulous technique and graft preparation are crucial to short-term and long-term patency. The risk of early thrombosis is related to damage to the graft 's native intima, graft flow, and coagulability of the patient 's blood. Attention to atraumatic harvesting techniques and perfection of anastomoses are crucial to minimizing intimal damage. Graft inflow and outflow are fundamental principles. The use of vitamin K antagonists and platelet inhibitors may improve graft survival. Subacute occlusion is related to structural alterations in the grafts themselves. These include intimal hyperplasia and medial fibrosis as the grafts become “arterialized,” valve fibrosis, aneurysmal dilatation, clamp stenosis, and suture stenosis. Long-term patency is threatened primarily by atherosclerosis in the graft itself. There is some evidence that care in vein harvesting and implantation as well as the use of anticoagulant agents affect the development of this complication.
A technique for graft preparation is presented that is based on the experience of the authors in harvesting grafts for both cerebral and coronary bypass conduits.
Thoralf M. Sundt Jr. and George Kees Jr.
✓ The authors have designed a miniclip and a microclip for occlusion of small perforating vessels deep in the operative wound. These clips are intended for permanent occlusion but may be used for temporary hemostasis.
Operative experience with 80 cases
Thoralf M. Sundt Jr. and David G. Piepgras
✓ The authors report experience with the surgical management of 80 giant intracranial aneurysms (> 2.5cm in diameter) during a 10-year period in which they performed 594 operations for aneurysms. The overall incidence of giant aneurysms was 13% but varied according to location: 20% of aneurysms of the internal carotid artery (ICA); 13% of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms; 1% of anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysms; 15% of aneurysms of the basilar artery caput (BAC); and 18% of vertebrobasilar trunk(VB) aneurysms. Twenty-five patients had a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 49 had mass effect from the aneurysm, and six had ischemic events. There was no apparent difference in results related to the presence or absence of an SAH. Poor results were attributable to the operation except in the two cases of ACA aneurysm in which preexisting dementia persisted. Mortality was 4% and morbidity was 14%, varying from a combined low morbidity-mortality of 8% for ICA lesions to a high of 50% for BAC aneurysms. During the period of the study, different techniques were developed in an attempt to lower the risks of surgery.Ultimately ICA aneurysms were monitored with cerebral blood flow measurements and electroencephalography before and after temporary ICA ligation, then approached following resection of the anterior clinoid or treated with bypass in combination with ICA ligation. Aneurysms of the MCA were either opened during temporary MCA occlusion or resected in combination with a bypass procedure. Bypass grafts and circulatory arrest with extracorporeal circulation may have a role in giant aneurysms of the posterior circulation.
Dudley H. Davis and Thoralf M. Sundt Jr.
✓ The relationship among cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume, cardiac output (CO), and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) at varying levels of arterial CO2 tensions (PaCO2) were studied in 70 normal cats. The CBF was measured from the clearance curve of xenon−133 and CO with a thermal dilution catheter placed in the pulmonary artery. The CBF, CO, and MABP values varied appropriately with changes in PaCO2, confirming the reliability of the preparations and the presence of normal autoregulatory responses. Moderate hypovolemia that did not change MABP did, nevertheless, significantly decrease CO and CBF. In an effort to determine if this decrease in CO and CBF were coupled responses, the effects of beta stimulation, hypervolemia, and alpha and beta blockade were investigated. Propranolol, in a dosage insufficient to change MABP, decreased both CO and CBF. This agent abolished the CO response to elevations in PaCO2 but not the CBF response, making it unlikely that this CBF reduction resulted from impaired cerebral autoregulation. Isoproterenol, which, in contrast to propranolol, does not cross the normal blood-brain barrier, alone or in combination with phenoxybenzamine, produced a 38% and 72% increase in CO, respectively, without a change in CBF. Alpha blockade (no major change in CO) and beta blockade (major decrease in CO) did not significantly effect cerebral autoregulation to changes in MABP from angiotensin. The ability of the brain to resist increases in MABP and CO and maintain normal CBF is explained by normal cerebral autoregulation. However, its vulnerability to modest decreases in blood volume, which cannot be attributed to variations in perfusion pressure, is unexplained but obviously has important therapeutic implications. This may be related to reduction in CO, changes in autonomic activity, or a decrease in the size of the perfused capillary bed.
Benjamin R. Gelber and Thoralf M. Sundt Jr.
✓ Ten patients with intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms were managed by combining ICA ligation with an extracranial to intracranial bypass procedure. Nine of these grafts were proven patent by angiogram. One patient was unable to return for postoperative angiograms; his graft had appeared patent on physical examination. Seven aneurysms were intracavernous, two were giant carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms, and one aneurysm was at the intracranial bifurcation of the ICA. Despite occlusion cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements of 20 ml/100 gm/min or less in six patients, only one patient was unable to tolerate ICA ligation. Three patients developed transient aphasia, but there were no permanent neurological deficits associated with the carotid occlusion. Seven patients had improvement in pre-existing extraocular palsies or visual field defects. Others remained stable.
The combination of an extracranial to intracranial microvascular bypass procedure with ICA ligation seems to be an effective method of treatment for aneurysms near the base of the skull that cannot be obliterated by a direct intracranial approach. The addition of the bypass procedure permits ICA ligation in patients who would not otherwise have tolerated occlusion of that vessel. Intraoperative xenon CBF measurements are an important adjunct to the operation.