Descriptions of visual dysfunction in pineal gland tumors tend to focus on upward gaze palsy alone. The authors aimed to characterize the nature, incidence, and functional significance of ophthalmological dysfunction after resection of tumors based on the pineal gland.
Review of a retrospective case series was performed and included consecutive patients who underwent surgery performed by a consultant neurosurgeon between 2002 and 2011. Only tumors specifically based on the pineal gland were included; tumors encroaching on the pineal gland from other regions were excluded. All patients with visual signs and/or symptoms were reviewed by a specialist consultant neuroophthalmologist to accurately characterize the nature of their deficits. Visual disturbance was defined as visual symptoms caused by a disturbance of ocular motility.
A total of 20 patients underwent resection of pineal gland tumors. Complete resection was obtained in 85%, and there were no perioperative deaths. Visual disturbance was present in 35% at presentation; of those who had normal ocular motility preoperatively 82% had normal motility postoperatively. In total, 55% of patients had residual visual disturbance postoperatively. Although upward gaze tended to improve, significant functional deficits remained, particularly with regard to complex convergence and accommodation dysfunction. Prisms were used in 25% but were only ever partially effective. Visual outcome was only related to preoperative visual status and tumor volume (multivariate analysis).
Long-term visual morbidity after pineal gland tumor resection is common and leads to significant functional impairment. Improvement in deficits rarely occurs spontaneously, and prisms only have limited effectiveness, probably due to the dynamic nature of supranuclear ocular movement coordination.