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Intracranial gossypiboma 9 years after intracranial pressure bolt insertion: illustrative case

Ryan T. S. Loh, Tomasz Matys, Kieren S. J. Allinson, and Thomas Santarius

BACKGROUND

Resorbable hemostatic agents left behind postoperatively occasionally result in granulomatous space-occupying lesions known as “gossypibomas.” The authors report a case of an intracranial gossypiboma, which is exceedingly rare and frequently radiologically indistinguishable from other lesions.

OBSERVATIONS

A 35-year-old woman presented with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure and subsequent left-sided hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhancing lobulated lesion subjacent to a right frontal burr hole, surrounded by vasogenic edema with mass effect and midline shift. Nine years earlier, she had had a triple bolt inserted to monitor intracranial pressure after sustaining a traumatic brain injury. Surgicel was used to control bleeding during insertion. Colocation of the lesion with the position of triple bolt 9 years earlier raised suspicion for gossypiboma. However, the minor nature of the surgery and the length of time since surgery to presentation placed this case well outside the range of cases reported in the literature. The lesion was resected en bloc with no recurrence 18 months later. Histological examination revealed the presence of foreign material. However, given its minute size, confirming its nature was not possible.

Lessons

The authors show that gossypibomas can occur following a relatively minor procedure and remain clinically and radiologically silent for much longer than previously reported.

Free access

Introduction. Innovations in neurosurgical quality and safety

Albert E. Telfeian, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Thomas Santarius, and Hyeun-Sung Kim

Restricted access

Ophthalmological outcome after resection of tumors based on the pineal gland

Clinical article

Michael G. Hart, Nicholas J. Sarkies, Thomas Santarius, and Ramez W. Kirollos

Object

Descriptions of visual dysfunction in pineal gland tumors tend to focus on upward gaze palsy alone. The authors aimed to characterize the nature, incidence, and functional significance of ophthalmological dysfunction after resection of tumors based on the pineal gland.

Methods

Review of a retrospective case series was performed and included consecutive patients who underwent surgery performed by a consultant neurosurgeon between 2002 and 2011. Only tumors specifically based on the pineal gland were included; tumors encroaching on the pineal gland from other regions were excluded. All patients with visual signs and/or symptoms were reviewed by a specialist consultant neuroophthalmologist to accurately characterize the nature of their deficits. Visual disturbance was defined as visual symptoms caused by a disturbance of ocular motility.

Results

A total of 20 patients underwent resection of pineal gland tumors. Complete resection was obtained in 85%, and there were no perioperative deaths. Visual disturbance was present in 35% at presentation; of those who had normal ocular motility preoperatively 82% had normal motility postoperatively. In total, 55% of patients had residual visual disturbance postoperatively. Although upward gaze tended to improve, significant functional deficits remained, particularly with regard to complex convergence and accommodation dysfunction. Prisms were used in 25% but were only ever partially effective. Visual outcome was only related to preoperative visual status and tumor volume (multivariate analysis).

Conclusions

Long-term visual morbidity after pineal gland tumor resection is common and leads to significant functional impairment. Improvement in deficits rarely occurs spontaneously, and prisms only have limited effectiveness, probably due to the dynamic nature of supranuclear ocular movement coordination.

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Transient perioperative brainstem paralysis secondary to a local anesthetic

Report of 2 cases

Alexis J. Joannides, Thomas Santarius, Helen M. Fernandes, Rodney J. C. Laing, and Rikin A. Trivedi

Local anesthesia is widely used, in isolation or in conjunction with general anesthesia. The authors describe 2 adolescent patients presenting with absent brainstem reflexes and delayed awakening following elective foramen magnum decompression for Chiari Type I malformation. In both cases, neurological deficits were closely associated with the administration of a levobupivacaine field block following wound closure. In the absence of any structural or biochemical abnormalities, and with spontaneous recovery approximating the anesthetic half-life, the authors' observations are consistent with transient brainstem paralysis caused by perioperative local anesthetic infiltration.

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Twist-drill craniostomy with hollow screws for evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma

A systematic review

Aswin Chari, Angelos G. Kolias, Thomas Santarius, Simon Bond, and Peter J. Hutchinson

Object

The incidence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is expected to increase substantially over the next 25 years. Continuing refinement of techniques for surgical evacuation is essential for optimizing patient outcomes. A novel technique involving a hollow screw, which is threaded through a twist-drill hole in the cranium and then connected to a closed drainage system, has been increasing in popularity. The aim of this systematic review is to collate and analyze the published experience with this novel technique and to evaluate its efficacy in comparison with the other surgical treatment methods.

Methods

This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines and has been registered with the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42013003544). MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for published series involving more than 10 patients treated with these new techniques.

Results

Nine eligible studies were found (6 case series and 3 case-control studies) comprising 796 patients treated with these new techniques. Pooled analysis showed a “success rate” of 77.6% (95% CI 74.6%–80.4%), recurrence rate of 22.4%, and in-hospital mortality of 1.4%.

Conclusions

This systematic review adds further evidence to the pool of data assessing the safety and efficacy of the use of this novel, minimally invasive technique for the treatment for CSDH. Overall, twist-drill craniostomy with hollow screws appears to be safe and effective. Class I evidence is necessary to optimize the surgical management of patients with CSDH.

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Isolated hypoglossal schwannoma in a 9-year-old child

Case report

Thomas Santarius, Srikanth Dakoji, Fardad T. Afshari, Frances L. Raymond, Helen V. Firth, Helen M. Fernandes, and Matthew R. Garnett

The authors report a case of an isolated schwannoma of left hypoglossal nerve in a 9-year-old girl. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of hypoglossal nerve schwannoma in the pediatric population in the absence of neurofibromatosis Type 2.

The patient presented with a 2-month history of morning nausea and vomiting with occasional daytime headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent CT scanning revealed a dumbbell tumor with a belly in the lower third of the posterior fossa and head underneath the left jugular foramen. Its neck protruded through an expanded hypoglossal canal. Although the lesion bore radiological characteristics of a hypoglossal schwannoma, the absence of hypoglossal palsy and the apparent lack of such tumors in the pediatric population the preoperative diagnosis was not certain.

The tumor was approached via a midline suboccipital craniotomy, and gross-total resection was achieved. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Blood and tumor tests for mutations in the NF2 gene were negative. Postoperative mild hypoglossal palsy recovered by the 3-month follow-up, and an MRI study obtained at 1 year did not show recurrence.

Free access

Memory recovery in relation to default mode network impairment and neurite density during brain tumor treatment

Rafael Romero-Garcia, John Suckling, Mallory Owen, Moataz Assem, Rohitashwa Sinha, Pedro Coelho, Emma Woodberry, Stephen J. Price, Amos Burke, Thomas Santarius, Yaara Erez, and Michael G. Hart

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to test brain tumor interactions with brain networks, thereby identifying protective features and risk factors for memory recovery after resection.

METHODS

Seventeen patients with diffuse nonenhancing glioma (ages 22–56 years) underwent longitudinal MRI before and after surgery, and during a 12-month recovery period (47 MRI scans in total after exclusion). After each scanning session, a battery of memory tests was performed using a tablet-based screening tool, including free verbal memory, overall verbal memory, episodic memory, orientation, forward digit span, and backward digit span. Using structural MRI and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) derived from diffusion-weighted images, the authors estimated lesion overlap and neurite density, respectively, with brain networks derived from normative data in healthy participants (somatomotor, dorsal attention, ventral attention, frontoparietal, and default mode network [DMN]). Linear mixed-effect models (LMMs) that regressed out the effect of age, gender, tumor grade, type of treatment, total lesion volume, and total neurite density were used to test the potential longitudinal associations between imaging markers and memory recovery.

RESULTS

Memory recovery was not significantly associated with either the tumor location based on traditional lobe classification or the type of treatment received by patients (i.e., surgery alone or surgery with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy). Nonlocal effects of tumors were evident on neurite density, which was reduced not only within the tumor but also beyond the tumor boundary. In contrast, high preoperative neurite density outside the tumor but within the DMN was associated with better memory recovery (LMM, p value after false discovery rate correction [Pfdr ] < 10−3). Furthermore, postoperative and follow-up neurite density within the DMN and frontoparietal network were also associated with memory recovery (LMM, Pfdr = 0.014 and Pfdr = 0.001, respectively). Preoperative tumor and postoperative lesion overlap with the DMN showed a significant negative association with memory recovery (LMM, Pfdr = 0.002 and Pfdr < 10−4, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

Imaging biomarkers of cognitive recovery and decline can be identified using NODDI and resting-state networks. Brain tumors and their corresponding treatment affecting brain networks that are fundamental for memory functioning such as the DMN can have a major impact on patients’ memory recovery.

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Technical considerations and long-term results of endovascular venous stenting to control venous hypertension from meningiomas invading intracranial venous sinuses

J. Nicholas P. Higgins, Sherif R. W. Kirollos, Adel Helmy, Mathew R. Guilfoyle, John D. Pickard, Patrick R. Axon, Alexis J. Joannides, Sarah Jefferies, Thomas Santarius, and Ramez Kirollos

OBJECTIVE

Meningiomas invading the intracranial venous sinuses may cause intracranial venous hypertension, papilledema, and visual compromise. Sinus resection and graft reconstructions, however, add significant complexity to tumor surgery, with the potential for increased morbidity. In this study, the authors explored whether venous sinus stenting might provide an alternative means of controlling venous hypertension that would be sustainable over the long term.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of all 16 patients with intracranial meningiomas who underwent stenting at their institution for venous sinus compromise. At presentation, all had headache and 9 had papilledema. Thirteen patients had 1 meningioma and 3 had 2 or more. Three patients had had previous tumor resection and radiotherapy. One patient had been treated with a lumboperitoneal shunt and radiotherapy. The median length of clinical follow-up was 8 years (range 4 months–18 years).

RESULTS

Venous sinus narrowing was often not confined to the site of meningioma, and bilateral transverse sinus narrowing, reminiscent of that seen in idiopathic intracranial hypertension, was present in 7 patients with sagittal sinus meningiomas. Eleven patients had stents placed solely across sinus narrowing caused by meningioma. Five patients had additional stents placed at other sites of venous narrowing at the same time: in one of these patients, a stent was placed across a defect in the sagittal sinus caused by previous surgery, and in the 4 other patients, stents were placed across nontumor narrowings of the transverse sinuses. In 1 patient, the jugular vein was also stented. Nine patients developed symptomatic in-stent restenosis at the meningioma site. Eight had further stenting procedures with variable success in restoring the in-stent lumen. The remaining patient, with a late partial relapse, is being reinvestigated. Papilledema resolved in all patients after stenting. Six patients experienced prolonged and very substantial relief of all symptoms. Five patients had persistent headache despite restoration of the sinus lumen. Five had persistent symptoms associated with resistant in-stent stenosis. There were no significant complications from any of the diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

CONCLUSIONS

In patients who are symptomatic with meningiomas obstructing the venous sinuses, successful stenting of the affected segment can give a good outcome, especially in terms of relieving papilledema. However, further procedures are often necessary to maintain stent patency, other areas of venous compromise frequently coexist, and some patients remain symptomatic despite apparently successful treatment of the index lesion. Long-term surveillance is a requirement.

Free access

Letter to the Editor. Copenhagen grading of meningioma

Tiit Mathiesen, Jeppe Haslund-Vinding, Jane Skjøth-Rasmussen, Lars Poulsgaard, Kåre Fugleholm, Christian Mirian, Andrea Daniela Maier, Thomas Santarius, Frantz Rom Poulsen, Vibeke Andrée Larsen, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, David Scheie, Ian Law, and Morten Ziebell

Free access

PET-guided repeat transsphenoidal surgery for previously deemed unresectable lateral disease in acromegaly

Waiel A. Bashari, Russell Senanayake, Olympia Koulouri, Daniel Gillett, James MacFarlane, Andrew S. Powlson, Antia Fernandez-Pombo, Gul Bano, Andrew J. Martin, Daniel Scoffings, Heok Cheow, Iosif Mendichovszky, James Tysome, Neil Donnelly, Thomas Santarius, Angelos Kolias, Richard Mannion, and Mark Gurnell

OBJECTIVE

The object of this study was to determine if revision transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), guided by 11C-methionine PET/CT coregistered with volumetric MRI (Met-PET/MRCR), can lead to remission in patients with persistent acromegaly due to a postoperative lateral disease remnant.

METHODS

The authors identified 9 patients with persistent acromegaly following primary intervention (TSS ± medical therapy ± radiotherapy) in whom further surgery had initially been discounted because of equivocal MRI findings with suspected lateral sellar and/or parasellar disease (cases with clear Knosp grade 4 disease were excluded). All patients underwent Met-PET/MRCR. Scan findings were used by the pituitary multidisciplinary team to inform decision-making regarding repeat surgery. Revision TSS was performed with wide lateral exploration as guided by the PET findings. Endocrine reassessment was performed at 6–10 weeks after surgery, with longitudinal follow-up thereafter.

RESULTS

Met-PET/MRCR revealed focal tracer uptake in the lateral sellar and/or parasellar region(s) in all 9 patients, which correlated with sites of suspected residual tumor on volumetric MRI. At surgery, tumor was identified and resected in 5 patients, although histological analysis confirmed somatotroph tumor in only 4 cases. In the other 4 patients, no definite tumor was seen, but equivocal tissue was removed. Despite the uncertainty at surgery, all patients showed immediate significant improvements in clinical and biochemical parameters. In the 8 patients for whom long-term follow-up data were available, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was ≤ 1.2 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) in all subjects and ≤ 1 times the ULN in 6 subjects, and these findings have been maintained for up to 28 months (median 8 months, mean 13 months) with no requirement for adjunctive medical therapy or radiotherapy. No patient suffered any additional pituitary deficit or other complication of surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

This study provides proof of concept that Met-PET/MRCR can be helpful in the evaluation of residual lateral sellar/parasellar disease in persistent acromegaly and facilitate targeted revision TSS in a subgroup of patients.