Thomas Pinzer, Günter Lauer, Jim Gollogly and Gabriele Schackert
Meningoencephaloceles are congenital malformations that have a high incidence in the population of Southeast Asia. Frontoethmoidal meningoencephaloceles, the most common variety, require surgical treatment. The authors combined neurosurgical and craniofacial approaches for the development of a simple technique that corrects this type of meningoencephalocele in a one-step procedure that has not been discussed in the literature previously.
In three visits of approximately 1 week each, 30 patients suffering from a frontoethmoidal meningoencephalocele underwent surgery successfully at the Rose Charities Surgical Rehabilitation Center, Kien Khleang, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported series of operations in this geographical region to treat meningoencephaloceles at a relatively primitive surgical center. Difficulties faced in this series included tropical conditions, problems ensuring sterility, and limited technical support.
The authors present the neurosurgical highlights and the outcomes in this series of patients. The single approach, via a bicoronal skin incision and small frontobasal trepanation, facilitates closure of the frontal skull defect and resection of the meningoencephalocele (including its extension into the facial area), as well as a satisfactory, one-step correction of the nasal skeleton and telecanthus.
Klaus Daniel Martin, Witold Henryk Polanski, Anne-Kathrin Schulz, Michael Jöbges, Hansjoerg Hoff, Gabriele Schackert, Thomas Pinzer and Stephan B. Sobottka
The ActiGait drop foot stimulator is a promising technique for restoration of lost ankle function by an implantable hybrid stimulation system. It allows ankle dorsiflexion by active peroneal nerve stimulation during the swing phase of gait. In this paper the authors report the outcome of the first prospective study on a large number of patients with stroke-related drop foot.
Twenty-seven patients who experienced a stroke and with persisting spastic leg paresis received an implantable ActiGait drop foot stimulator for restoration of ankle movement after successful surface test stimulation. After 3 to 5 weeks, the stimulator was activated, and gait speed, gait endurance, and activation time of the system were evaluated and compared with preoperative gait tests. In addition, patient satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire.
Postoperative gait speed significantly improved from 33.9 seconds per 20 meters to 17.9 seconds per 20 meters (p < 0.0001), gait endurance from 196 meters in 6 minutes to 401 meters in 6 minutes (p < 0.0001), and activation time from 20.5 seconds to 10.6 seconds on average (p < 0.0001). In 2 patients with nerve injury, surgical repositioning of the electrode cuff became necessary. One patient showed a delayed wound healing, and in another patient the system had to be removed because of a wound infection. Marked improvement in mobility, social participation, and quality of life was confirmed by 89% to 96% of patients.
The ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator improves gait speed, endurance, and quality of life in patients with stroke-related drop foot. Regarding gait speed, the ActiGait system appears to be advantageous compared with foot orthosis or surface stimulation devices. Randomized trials with more patients and longer observation periods are needed to prove the long-term benefit of this device.
K. Daniel Martin, Witold H. Polanski, Anne-Kathrin Schulz, Michael Jöbges, Tjalf Ziemssen, Gabriele Schackert, Thomas Pinzer and Stephan B. Sobottka
Direct stimulation of the peroneal nerve by the ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator is a potent therapy that was described previously for stroke-related drop foot. The authors report here successful long-term application of the ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
Six patients with MS and 2 years of persisting central leg paresis received an implantable ActiGait drop foot stimulator after successful surface test stimulation. Ten weeks and 1 year after surgery, their gait speed, endurance, and safety were evaluated. Patient satisfaction was assessed with a questionnaire.
In the 20-m gait test, stimulation with the ActiGait stimulator significantly reduced the time needed, on average, by approximately 23.6% 10 weeks after surgery, and the time improved further by 36.3% after 1 year. The median distance covered by patients with the stimulator after 6 minutes of walking increased significantly from 217 m to 321 m and remained stable for 1 year; the distance covered by patients after surface stimulation was 264 m. Patients with an implanted ActiGait stimulator noticed pronounced improvement in their mobility, social participation, and quality of life.
The ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator improved gait speed, endurance, and quality of life in all patients over a period of 1 year. It may serve as a new therapeutic option for patients with MS-related drop foot.