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Simona Mihaela Florea, Thomas Graillon, Thomas Cuny, Regis Gras, Thierry Brue and Henry Dufour

OBJECTIVE

Ophthalmoplegia is a rare complication of transsphenoidal surgery, only noted in a few studies. The purpose of this study was to analyze the complications of cranial nerve III, IV, or VI palsy after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma and understand its physiopathology and outcome.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed 24 cases of postoperative ophthalmoplegia selected from the 1694 patients operated via a transsphenoidal route in their department.

RESULTS

Two patients were operated on via microscopy and 22 via endoscopy. Patients operated on endoscopically had a greater risk of presenting with an extraocular nerve deficit postoperatively (p = 0.0115). It was found that an extension into or an invasion of the cavernous sinus (Knosp grade 3 or 4 on MRI, 18/24 patients) was correlated with a higher risk of postoperative ophthalmoplegia (p < 0.0001). The deficit was apparent immediately after surgery in 2 patients. For these 2 patients, the mechanisms of ophthalmoplegia were compression or intraoperative nerve lesion. The other 22 patients became symptomatic in the 12–72 hours following the surgery. The mechanisms implied in these cases were intrasellar compressive hematoma (4/22 cases), intracavernous hemorrhagic suffusion, or incomplete resection of the intracavernous portion of the tumor. All patients who did not present with oculomotor palsy immediately after surgery completely recovered their deficits in the 3 months that followed, while the other 2 experienced permanent damage.

CONCLUSIONS

Extraocular nerve dysfunction after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is a rare complication that occurs more frequently in the case of the invasion or an important extension into the cavernous sinus. In this series, it also appears to be significantly more frequent in patients operated on via an endoscopic approach. Most patients have deficits that appear with a delay of 12–72 hours postoperatively and they are most likely to completely recover.

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Aymeric Amelot, Kevin Beccaria, Thomas Blauwblomme, Marie Bourgeois, Giovanna Paternoster, Marie-Laure Cuny, Michel Zerah, Christian Sainte-Rose and Stephanie Puget

OBJECTIVE

Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are most frequently located in the middle cranial fossa. Some patients are asymptomatic whereas others exhibit signs of increased intracranial pressure, seizures, or cognitive and behavioral symptoms. When ACs do require treatment, the optimal surgical technique remains controversial. This study was conducted to assess the most effective surgical treatment for these cysts.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed 240 temporal intracranial ACs managed over a 25-year period in their pediatric neurosurgical unit. Pre- and posttreatment results were clinically and radiologically assessed.

RESULTS

A majority of male patients (74.6%) with an overall median age of 6.9 years were included. The mean cyst size was 107 cm3; the Galassi classification showed 99 (41.3%) type I, 77 (32.1%) type II, and 64 (26.7%) type III cysts. Forty-four ACs (18.3%) were diagnosed after rupture. Surgical management was performed by microsurgery (28.3%), endoscopic cyst fenestration (14.6%), cystoperitoneal shunting (CPS; 16.2%), or subdural shunting (10%). Furthermore, 74 children (30.8%) did not undergo operations. After a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, the mean percentage decrease in cyst volume and the overall rate of clinical improvement did not significantly differ. The endoscopy group had earlier complications and a shorter event-free survival (EFS) time (EFS at 3 years = 67.7%, vs 71.5% and 90.5% for CPS and microsurgery, respectively; p < 0.007) and presented with more subdural hematomas compared to the microsurgery group (p < 0.005). The microsurgery group also showed a tendency for longer cystocisternostomy permeability than the endoscopy group.

CONCLUSIONS

Concerning the management of unruptured symptomatic temporal ACs, microsurgery appears to be the most effective treatment, with longer EFS and fewer complications compared to shunting or endoscopy.

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Forniceal glioma in children

Clinical article

Thomas Blauwblomme, Pascale Varlet, John R. Goodden, Marie Laure Cuny, Helene Piana, Thomas Roujeau, Federico DiRocco, Jacques Grill, Virginie Kieffer, Nathalie Boddaert, Christian Sainte-Rose and Stéphanie Puget

Object

Five to ten percent of pediatric brain tumors are located in the ventricles. Among them, forniceal lesions are rare and their management has not often been described. The aim of this study was to review the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features as well as the feasibility of surgical excision and the outcomes in these patients.

Methods

From a retrospective analysis of 250 cases of supratentorial pediatric glioma, the records of 8 children presenting with forniceal lesions were selected and reviewed.

Results

The median age of patients in the cohort was 13.5 years. Presenting features included intracranial hypertension (7 cases), hypothalamic dysfunction (2), and memory dysfunction (3). Complete resection was possible in only 1 case, where the lesion was mainly exophytic; the remaining patients had either a partial resection or biopsy. On histological review, the tumors were confirmed as pilocytic astrocytoma (4 lesions), WHO Grade II astrocytoma (3), and ganglioglioma (1). Postoperatively, working and retrograde memory was normal for all patients, but the authors found a mild alteration in verbal episodic memory in 5 patients. Despite fatigability for 5 patients, academic achievement was normal for all but 2, both of whom had preoperative school difficulties. Additional treatment was required for 5 patients for tumor progression, with a median interval of 19 months from surgery. At a median follow-up duration of 4.9 years, all patients had stable disease.

Conclusions

In this series, forniceal gliomas were found to be low-grade gliomas. They are surgically challenging, and only exophytic lesions may be cured surgically. Due to the high rate of progression of residual disease, adjuvant therapy is recommended for infiltrative tumors, and it yielded excellent results.