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Increased Intracranial Pressure and Pulmonary Edema

Part 1: Clinical Study of 11 Patients

Thomas B. Ducker

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Thomas G. Saul and Thomas B. Ducker

✓ During 1977–1978, 127 patients with severe head injury were admitted and underwent intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. All patients had Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 7 or less. All received identical initial treatment according to a standardized protocol. The patients' average age was 29 years; 60% had multiple trauma, and 35% needed emergency intracranial operations. Treatment for elevations of ICP was begun when ICP rose to 20 to 25 mm Hg, and included mannitol therapy and drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) when possible. Forty-three patients (34%) had ICP greater than or equal to 25 mm Hg; of these, 36 (84%) died. The mortality rate of the entire group was 46%.

During 1979–1980, 106 patients with severe head injury were admitted and underwent ICP monitoring. Their average age was 29 years; 51% had multiple trauma, and 31% underwent emergency intracranial surgery. All patients received the same standardized protocol as the previous series, with the exception of the treatment of ICP. In this present series: if ICP was 15 mm Hg or less (normal ICP), patients were continued on hyperventilation, steroids, and intensive care; if ICP was 16 to 24 mm Hg, mannitol was administered and CSF was drained; if ICP was 25 mm Hg or greater, the patients were randomized into a controlled barbiturate therapy study. Twenty-six patients (25%) had ICP's of 25 mm Hg or greater, compared to 34% in the previous series (p < 0.05), and 18 of these 26 patients (69%) died. The overall mortality for this current series was 28% compared to 46% in the previous series (p < 0.0005).

This study reconfirms the high mortality rate if ICP is 25 mm Hg or greater; however, the data also document that early aggressive treatment based on ICP monitoring significantly lessens the incidence of ICP of 25 mm Hg or greater and reduces the overall mortality rate of severe head injury.

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Increased Intracranial Pressure and Pulmonary Edema

Part 2: The Hemodynamic Response of Dogs and Monkeys to Increased Intracranial Pressure

Thomas B. Ducker and Richard L. Simmons

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Richard P. Greenberg and Thomas B. Ducker

✓ The use of evoked potentials for the evaluation of disorders of the nervous system has become a most valuable aid to the neurosurgeon and neurologist, often providing information of critical value without recourse to invasive techniques. In order to employ these techniques, it is helpful to understand the principles of evoked potential electrogenesis and the methodology used for analysis of evoked potential clinical data. This article is aimed at providing the clinical neurosurgeon with this type of information and with a review of current clinical applications in this rapidly developing field.

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Thomas B. Ducker, Glenn W. Kindt and Ludwig G. Kempe

✓ This study shows that spinal cord pathology secondary to acute trauma in monkeys evolves with stepwise sequential changes. The acute damage is more central than peripheral. Depending on the amount of trauma, the subacute damage may be limited to central gray necrosis or may progress or evolve to include the neighboring white matter. These pathological changes may be taking place even in the presence of clinical improvement.

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Irwin R. Berman, Thomas B. Ducker and Richard L. Simmons

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Thomas B. Ducker and Harold F. Hamit

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Thomas B. Ducker, George J. Hayes and Brigadier General