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Ioannis Karakis, Thanh N. Nguyen, Viken L. Babikian and Alexander M. Norbash

Intracranial atherosclerotic disease accounts for 5–10% of ischemic strokes in the US. Lesions located in the anterior cerebral artery territory are infrequently reported. Patients in whom medical therapy fails are at a high risk for recurrent ischemic events, in which case intracranial angioplasty or stenting may be a reasonable therapy. There is a paucity of literature describing angioplasty of fixed atherosclerotic lesions affecting the anterior cerebral artery territory, and especially the A2 segment. This case illustrates that this vessel segment may be treated with balloon angioplasty.

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Thanh N. Nguyen, Jean Raymond, François Guilbert, Daniel Roy, Maxime D. Bérubé, Mostafa Mahmoud and Alain Weill

Object

Procedure-related rupture during endovascular therapy of intracranial aneurysms is associated with a mortality rate of more than one third. Previously ruptured aneurysms are a known risk factor for procedure-related rupture. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether very small, ruptured aneurysms are associated with more frequent intraprocedural ruptures.

Methods

This was a retrospective cohort study in which the investigators examined consecutive ruptured aneurysms treated with coil embolization at a single institution. The study was approved by the institutional review board. Very small aneurysms were defined as ≤ 3 mm. Procedure-related rupture was defined as contrast extravasation during treatment. Univariate analysis with the Fisher exact test and the Mann–Whitney U test was performed.

Results

Between August 1992 and January 2007, 682 aneurysms were selectively treated with coils in 668 patients. Procedure-related rupture occurred in 7 (11.7%) of 60 aneurysms ≤ 3 mm, compared with 14 (2.3%) of 622 aneurysms > 3 mm (relative risk 5.2, 95% confidence interval 2.2–12.8; p < 0.001). Among cases with procedure-related rupture, inflation of a compliant balloon was associated with better outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score ≥ 4) compared with patients treated without balloon assistance (5 of 5 compared with 7 of 16; p = 0.05). Death resulting from procedure-related rupture occurred in 8 (38%) of 21 patients, and a vegetative state occurred in 1 patient. Clinical outcome was good in the other 12 patients (57%).

Conclusions

Endovascular coil embolization of very small (≤ 3 mm) ruptured cerebral aneurysms is 5 times more likely to result in procedure-related rupture compared with larger aneurysms. Balloon inflation for hemostasis may be associated with better outcome in the event of intraprocedural rupture and merits further study.

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Thanh N. Nguyen, Jean Raymond, Daniel Roy, Miguel Chagnon, Alain Weill, Daniela Iancu-Gontard and Francois Guilbert

Object

Pericallosal artery aneurysms are uncommon. Their treatment strategy, surgical or endovascular, will present specific challenges. The objective of the study was to compare risks of coil therapy and the recurrence rate of pericallosal artery aneurysms with aneurysms in other intradural locations.

Methods

The authors examined data that were stored in a prospectively collected database for pericallosal artery aneurysms in patients who underwent coil placement between 1992 and 2005. Hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications as well as clinical and angiographic outcomes were reviewed. Angiographically documented recurrences were classified as minor or major. These lesions were compared with a historical cohort of non–pericallosal artery aneurysms in patients who underwent coil therapy between 1992 and 2002. The known risk factors for recurrence and procedure-related hemorrhagic complications were evaluated in both groups to assess baseline imbalances.

Results

During a 13-year period, 25 pericallosal artery aneurysms were treated with coils in 25 patients. The non–pericallosal artery lesion group included 488 aneurysms of which 344 underwent follow-up imaging. Procedure-related perforations were more frequent for pericallosal artery aneurysms than those in other intradural locations (three of 25 compared with eight of 476, respectively; risk ratio 7.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1–22.5, p = 0.03). Follow-up imaging studies (obtained at a mean 28 months) were available for 19 patients with pericallosal artery aneurysms. The recurrence rate was not significantly higher in these patients (22.9/100 person–years of observation) than in those with non–pericallosal artery aneurysms (17.9/100 person–years of observation) (incidence rate ratio 1.3, 95% CI 0.6–2.4, p = 0.46).

Conclusions

Pericallosal artery aneurysms were associated with significantly higher periprocedural rupture than non–pericallosal artery lesions. No significant intergroup difference was found for aneurysm recurrence.

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Thanh T. Nguyen, Sarah Hill, Thomas M. Austin, Gina M. Whitney, John C. Wellons III and Humphrey V. Lam

OBJECT

Craniofacial reconstruction surgery (CFR) is often associated with significant blood loss, coagulopathy, and perioperative blood transfusion. Due to transfusion risks, many different approaches have been used to decrease allogeneic blood transfusion for these patients during the perioperative period. Protocols have decreased blood administration during the perioperative period for many types of surgeries. The object of this study was to determine if a protocol involving blood-sparing surgical techniques and a transfusion algorithm decreased intraoperative blood transfusion and blood loss.

METHODS

A protocol using transfusion algorithms and implementation of blood-sparing surgical techniques for CFR was implemented at Vanderbilt University on January 1, 2013. Following Institutional Review Board approval, blood loss and transfusion data were gathered retrospectively on all children undergoing primary open CFR, using the protocol, for the calendar year 2013. This postprotocol cohort was compared with a preprotocol cohort, which consisted of all children undergoing primary open CFR during the previous calendar year, 2012.

RESULTS

There were 41 patients in the preprotocol and 39 in the postprotocol cohort. There was no statistical difference between the demographics of the 2 groups. When compared with the preprotocol cohort, intraoperative packed red blood cell transfusion volume decreased from 36.9 ± 21.2 ml/kg to 19.2 ± 10.9 ml/kg (p = 0.0001), whereas fresh-frozen plasma transfusion decreased from 26.8 ± 25.4 ml/kg to 1.5 ± 5.7 ml/kg (p < 0.0001) following implementation of the protocol. Furthermore, estimated blood loss decreased from 64.2 ± 32.4 ml/kg to 52.3 ± 33.3 ml/kg (p = 0.015). Use of fresh-frozen plasma in the postoperative period also decreased when compared with the period before implementation of the protocol. There was no significant difference in morbidity and mortality between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study suggested that using a multidisciplinary protocol consisting of transfusion algorithms and implementation of blood-sparing surgical techniques during major CFR in pediatric patients is associated with reduced intraoperative administration of blood product, without shifting the transfusion burden to the postoperative period.

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Sabareesh K. Natarajan, Paresh Dandona, Yuval Karmon, Albert J. Yoo, Junaid S. Kalia, Qing Hao, Daniel P. Hsu, L. Nelson Hopkins, David J. Fiorella, Bernard R. Bendok, Thanh N. Nguyen, Marilyn M. Rymer, Ashish Nanda, David S. Liebeskind, Osama O. Zaidat, Raul G. Nogueira, Adnan H. Siddiqui and Elad I. Levy

Object

The authors evaluated the prognostic significance of blood glucose level at admission (BGA) and change in blood glucose at 48 hours from the baseline value (CG48) in nondiabetic and diabetic patients before and after endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Methods

The BGA and CG48 data were analyzed in 614 patients with AIS who received endovascular therapy at 7 US centers between 2006 and 2009. Data reviewed included demographics, stroke risk factors, diabetic status, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at presentation, recanalization grade, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) rate, and 90-day outcomes (mortality rate and modified Rankin Scale score of 3–6 [defined as poor outcome]). Variables with p values < 0.2 in univariate analysis were included in a binary logistic regression model for independent predictors of 90-day outcomes.

Results

The mean patient age was 67.3 years, the median NIHSS score was 16, and 27% of patients had diabetes. In nondiabetic patients, BGA ≥ 116 mg/dl (≥ 6.4 mmol/L) and failure of glucose level to drop > 30 mg/dl (> 1.7 mmol/L) from the admission value were both significant predictors of 90-day poor outcome and death (p < 0.001). In patients with diabetes, BGA ≥ 116 mg/dl (≥ 6.4 mmol/L) was an independent predictor of poor outcome (p = 0.001). The CG48 was not a predictor of outcome in diabetic patients. A simplified 6-point scale including BGA, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Grade 2–3 Reperfusion, Age, presentation NIHSS score, CG48, and symptomatic ICH (BRANCH) corresponded with poor outcomes at 90 days; the area under the curve value was > 0.79.

Conclusions

Failure of blood glucose values to decrease in the first 48 hours after AIS intervention correlated with poor 90-day outcomes in nondiabetic patients. The BRANCH scale shows promise as a simple prognostication tool after endovascular therapy for AIS, and it merits prospective validation.