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Tetsuya Ueba, Hiroshi Abe, Juntaro Matsumoto, Toshio Higashi, and Tooru Inoue

A 19-month-old child was gradually suffering from gait disturbance and was referred by his pediatrician to the authors' institution. Spinal MRI showed Gd-enhanced spinal cord tumor and congestive myelopathy. Intraoperatively the lesion was seen to be a hemangioblastoma. Because discrimination of the arterialized draining veins from the feeding arteries was difficult, indocyanine green videography was conducted to differentiate them. Real-time evaluation by FLOW 800 revealed that the slope of the average signal intensity in the feeding artery was steeper than that of the arterialized veins. The tumor was successfully resected, and postoperative indocyanine green videography showed total removal of the tumor as a signal-negative region; the circulation time between the feeding artery and the main draining vein was prolonged from 2.5 to 5.5 seconds. Indocyanine green videography and real-time evaluation by FLOW 800 were objective and effective for the excision of a tumor retaining the arteriovenous shunt. The patient recovered from congestive myelopathy and gait disturbance.

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Tetsuya Abe, Masataka Sakane, Toshiyuki Ikoma, Mihoko Kobayashi, Satoshi Nakamura, and Naoyuki Ochiai

Object

Bone is frequently the first site and the only site of breast cancer at recurrence. Local control is important especially for metastatic spine cancer, because epidural spinal cord compression is significantly associated with the quality of life and survival of these patients. The authors have developed a local delivery system of paclitaxel in the form of hydroxyapatite-alginate composite beads. This study was conducted to clarify the therapeutic effect in a rat model of metastatic spine cancer.

Methods

Twenty-one rats with metastatic spine cancer were divided into 3 groups: a local treatment group (6 rats), a systemic treatment group (9 rats), and a control group (6 rats). The hind-limb motor function of the animals was monitored daily by using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale. The authors monitored the disease-free time and survival times. The log-rank test was used to define statistically significant differences between the 3 groups.

Results

The animals in the control group developed hind-limb paralysis at a mean of 10.8 days and died at a mean of 16.0 days. The animals treated with 2.4 wt% of paclitaxel-loaded hydroxyapatite-alginate composite beads (the local treatment group) showed a 140–150% increase in the disease-free time and survival time compared with that of the control group. Although an ~ 30-fold higher dosage of paclitaxel was administered, the therapeutic effect was not evident in the systemic treatment group.

Conclusions

Intraosseous delivery of paclitaxel-loaded hydroxyapatite-alginate composite beads delayed paralysis caused by metastatic spine cancer in rats. The results indicate that intraosseous chemotherapy may provide an effective local treatment of metastatic spine cancer.

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Tetsuya Ueba, Masakazu Okawa, Hiroshi Abe, Masani Nonaka, Mitsutoshi Iwaasa, Toshio Higashi, Tooru Inoue, and Koichi Takano

Object

Indocyanine green (ICG) videography is commonly used in the neurosurgical field for minimally invasive neurosurgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new intraoperative imaging modality by performing transdural ICG videography during surgery for meningiomas.

Methods

Between March 2011 and April 2012, 10 patients with meningiomas received intravenous injection of 12.5 mg ICG just prior to dural opening. The cases comprised 8 convexity meningiomas and 2 foramen magnum meningiomas. Efficacy of the transdural ICG videography was assessed in terms of the tumor volume, the circulation time from the first appearance of the vessel to the appearance of the venous sinus, the tendency to bleed, and the discrimination of the venous sinus.

Results

The mean tumor volume was 71.6 ± 87.9 ml (the mean is expressed ± SD throughout). The cortical arteries, veins, and the venous sinus were identified by the ICG videography transdurally. The projection of the meningiomas was identified by a shadow (which the authors call the eclipse sign). Total eclipse signs were obtained in 8 cases and partial eclipse signs were obtained in 2 cases; tumor volume in the latter was more than 200 ml. In 5 of 10 cases the adjacent venous sinuses were exposed and were successfully visualized by ICG videography in 5.92 ± 1.05 seconds from the first appearance of the vessel. In 5 of 10 cases the total and the partial eclipse signs were diminished in 3.46 ± 1.31 seconds. The diminishment of the total and the partial eclipse sign was earlier than the visualization of the venous sinus (p = 0.011, t-test), revealing bleeding from the tumor that was observed until coagulation of the feeding arteries from the intracranial arteries.

Conclusions

Prior to opening of the dura mater, transdural ICG videography was used successfully to visualize the dural attachment of meningiomas and the venous sinus, resulting in safe and appropriate dural opening. The diminishment of the total and partial eclipse signs may represent significant feeding from the intracranial arteries and a tendency to bleed during resection.

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Tomoaki Shimizu, Masao Koda, Tetsuya Abe, Tomoyuki Asada, Kosuke Sato, Yosuke Shibao, Mamoru Kono, Fumihiko Eto, Kousei Miura, Kentaro Mataki, Hiroshi Noguchi, Hiroshi Takahashi, Toru Funayama, and Masashi Yamazaki

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to clarify the clinical utility of paravertebral foramen screws (PVFSs) and to determine intraoperative indicators for appropriate screw placement during posterior cervical fusion surgery to improve its safety.

METHODS

The authors included data from 46 patients (29 men and 17 women, mean age 61.7 years) who underwent posterior cervical spine surgery with 94 PVFSs. Of the 94 PVFSs, 77 were used in C6, 9 in C3, 5 in C4, and 3 in C5. According to the cervical lateral radiographic view, the authors divided the 94 PVFSs into 3 groups as follows: a longer group, in which the tip of PVFS was located anteriorly from the line of the posterior wall of the vertebral body (> +0 mm); an intermediate group, in which the screw tip was located up to 2 mm posteriorly to the posterior wall of the vertebral body (–2 to 0 mm); and a shorter group, in which the screw tip was located more than 2 mm posteriorly (< –2 mm). The accuracy of screw placement was assessed using CT imaging in the axial plane, and the proportion of screws penetrating a vertebral foramen or a transverse foramen was compared between the 3 groups. Screw loosening was defined as a lucent zone around the screw evaluated on cervical radiography at 1 year after surgery. Complications related to PVFS insertion and revision surgery related to PVFS were evaluated.

RESULTS

The authors classified 25 PVFSs into the longer group, 43 into the intermediate group, and 26 into the shorter group. The proportion of screws penetrating a vertebral foramen was largest in the shorter group, and the proportion penetrating a transverse foramen was largest in the longer group. Screw loosening was confirmed for 3 of 94 PVFSs. One PVFS inserted in C6 unilaterally within a long construct from C2 to C7 showed loosening, but it did not cause clinical symptoms. Revision surgery was required for 2 PVFSs inserted in C3 bilaterally as the lower instrumented vertebra in occiput–cervical fusion because they pulled out. There was no neurovascular complication related to PVFS insertion.

CONCLUSIONS

PVFSs are useful for posterior cervical fusion surgery as alternative anchor screws, and the line of the posterior wall of the cervical body on lateral fluoroscopic images is a potential intraoperative reference to indicate an appropriate trajectory for PVFSs.

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Eiichi Ishikawa, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Takashi Maruyama, Koji Tsuboi, Soko Ikuta, Koichi Hashimoto, Youji Uemae, Takeshi Ishihara, Masahide Matsuda, Masao Matsutani, Katsuyuki Karasawa, Yoichi Nakazato, Tatsuya Abe, Tadao Ohno, and Akira Matsumura

Object

Temozolomide (TMZ) may enhance antitumor immunity in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In this paper the authors report on a prospective Phase I/IIa clinical trial of fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) concomitant with TMZ therapy, followed by treatment with autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV) and TMZ maintenance in patients with newly diagnosed GBM.

Methods

Twenty-four patients (age 16–75 years, Karnofsky Performance Scale score ≥ 60% before initiation of FRT) with newly diagnosed GBM received a total dose of 60 Gy of FRT with daily concurrent TMZ. After a 4-week interval, the patients received 3 AFTV injections and the first course of TMZ maintenance chemotherapy for 5 days, followed by multiple courses of TMZ for 5 days in each 28-day cycle.

Results

This treatment regimen was well tolerated by all patients. The percentage of patients with progression-free survival (PFS) ≥ 24 months was 33%. The median PFS, median overall survival (OS), and the actuarial 2- and 3-year survival rates of the 24 patients were 8.2 months, 22.2 months, 47%, and 38%, respectively. The median PFS in patients with a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response after the third AFTV injection (DTH-2) of 10 mm or larger surpassed the median length of follow-up for progression-free patients (29.5 months), which was significantly greater than the median PFS in patients with a smaller DTH-2 response.

Conclusions

The treatment regimen was well tolerated and resulted in favorable PFS and OS for newly diagnosed GBM patients. Clinical trial registration no.: UMIN000001426 (UMIN clinical trials registry, Japan).