The authors present the case of a 1-month-old girl with a lumbosacral lipoma who then developed an extracanalicular syrinx and experienced rapid deterioration. The patient’s initial MRI study, obtained before she became symptomatic, revealed a spinal lipoma with a syrinx in contact with the lipoma-cord interface. She was initially asymptomatic but developed loss of motor function in the left leg 14 days after MRI. Emergency surgery was performed. Intraoperative findings revealed a swollen spinal cord. Lipomatous tissue on the caudal side of the conus was removed subtotally, and the central canal was opened. Expansion of the syrinx was observed intraoperatively. Postoperatively, the patient’s left leg paresis remained. Postoperative MRI revealed rostral and extracanalicular expansion of the syrinx. This is the first report on the rapid deterioration of a conus lipoma due to extracanalicular expansion of a syrinx. Careful follow-up and repeat MRI should be considered for patients with spinal lipomas with syringomyelia, especially when the syrinx is attached to the lipoma-cord interface.
Yumiko Komori, Masahiro Nonaka, Takamasa Kamei, Junichi Takeda, Tetsuo Hashiba, Kunikazu Yoshimura, and Akio Asai
Takamasa Kamei, Masahiro Nonaka, Yoshiko Uemura, Yasuo Yamanouchi, Yumiko Komori, Ryoichi Iwata, Junichi Takeda, Tetsuo Hashiba, Kunikazu Yoshimura, and Akio Asai
Rathke’s cleft cyst is a cystic disease that occurs in the sella turcica or, occasionally, in the suprasellar area. An ectopic Rathke’s cleft cyst is extremely rare, and its nature is less well understood. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old girl who presented with a growing cystic lesion in the prepontine cistern, immediately behind the dorsum sellae. Preoperative imaging and intraoperative investigation showed part of the cyst wall continuing into the dorsum sellae, to the pituitary gland. The cisternal portion of the cyst wall was totally resected via a right subtemporal approach. Histopathological examination of the cyst wall showed a monolayer of ciliated cells, identical to those of Rathke’s cleft cyst. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this represents the first pediatric case of Rathke’s cleft cyst occurring in the prepontine cistern.
Tetsuo Hashiba, Naoya Hashimoto, Shuichi Izumoto, Tsuyoshi Suzuki, Naoki Kagawa, Motohiko Maruno, Amami Kato, and Toshiki Yoshimine
Due to advances in neuroimaging and the increasing use of imaging to screen for brain disease (“brain checkups”), meningiomas are now often detected as an incidental finding. The natural history of these asymptomatic meningiomas remains unclear, however. In this study, the authors investigated the natural history and growth pattern of incidentally detected meningiomas using serial volumetric assessment and regression analysis.
In 70 patients with incidentally discovered meningiomas who underwent follow-up for longer than 1 year, tumor volumes were calculated volumetrically at each follow-up visit, and tumor growth was determined. In patients with tumor growth, regression analysis was performed to determine the pattern of growth.
Forty-four tumors exhibited growth and 26 did not. In a regression analysis, 16 of the tumors that grew followed an exponential growth pattern and 15 exhibited linear growth patterns. The presence of calcification was the only imaging characteristic that significantly distinguished the group with tumor growth from that without, although no radiological characteristics significantly distinguished the exponential growth group from the linear growth group. Two patients with obvious tumor growth underwent surgical removal and the pathological specimens extracted showed a high proliferative potential.
The authors found that incidentally discovered meningiomas did not always follow an exponential growth pattern but often exhibited more complex patterns of growth. Serial monitoring of tumor volumes and regression analysis may reveal the growth pattern of incidental meningiomas and provide information useful for determining treatment strategy.
Shuichi Izumoto, Akihiro Tsuboi, Yoshihiro Oka, Tsuyoshi Suzuki, Tetsuo Hashiba, Naoki Kagawa, Naoya Hashimoto, Motohiko Maruno, Olga A. Elisseeva, Toshiaki Shirakata, Manabu Kawakami, Yusuke Oji, Sumiyuki Nishida, Satoshi Ohno, Ichiro Kawase, Jun Hatazawa, Shin-ichi Nakatsuka, Katsuyuki Aozasa, Satoshi Morita, Junichi Sakamoto, Haruo Sugiyama, and Toshiki Yoshimine
The object of this study was to investigate the safety and clinical responses of immunotherapy targeting the WT1 (Wilms tumor 1) gene product in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
Twenty-one patients with WT1/HLA-A*2402–positive recurrent GBM were included in a Phase II clinical study of WT1 vaccine therapy. In all patients, the tumors were resistant to standard therapy. Patients received intra-dermal injections of an HLA-A*2402–restricted, modified 9-mer WT1 peptide every week for 12 weeks. Tumor size, which was obtained by measuring the contrast-enhanced area on magnetic resonance images, was determined every 4 weeks. The responses were analyzed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 12 weeks after the initial vaccination. Patients who achieved an effective response continued to be vaccinated until tumor progression occurred. Progression-free survival and overall survival after initial WT1 treatment were estimated.
The protocol was well tolerated; only local erythema occurred at the WT1 vaccine injection site. The clinical responses were as follows: partial response in 2 patients, stable disease in 10 patients, and progressive disease in 9 patients. No patient had a complete response. The overall response rate (cases with complete or partial response) was 9.5%, and the disease control rate (cases with complete or partial response as well as those in which disease was stable) was 57.1%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) period was 20.0 weeks, and the 6-month (26-week) PFS rate was 33.3%.
Although a small uncontrolled nonrandomized trial, this study showed that WT1 vaccine therapy for patients with WT1/HLA-A*2402–positive recurrent GBM was safe and produced a clinical response. Based on these results, further clinical studies of WT1 vaccine therapy in patients with malignant glioma are warranted.