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  • Author or Editor: Tetsuji Yamamoto x
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Tetsuji Inagawa, Mitsuo Yamamoto and Kazuko Kamiya

✓ The effect of clot removal on cerebral vasospasm was studied in 104 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The series included patients who fulfilled all of the following criteria: operation was performed by Day 3 after the ictus; the patient's preoperative clinical grade was between Grades I and IV; there was no rebleeding; computerized tomography (CT) showed only SAH; and carotid angiograms were performed by Day 2 and repeated between Days 7 and 9. Both the degree of SAH on CT and angiographic vasospasm were graded from 0 to III. The relationship of the SAH grade in the basal frontal interhemispheric fissure (IHF) to the presence of vasospasm at the A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery and the relationship of the SAH grade in the sylvian stems to the presence of vasospasm at the M1 segments of the middle cerebral artery were analyzed.

Correlation of preoperative and postoperative SAH grades with the angiographic vasospasm grades, with the incidence of symptomatic vasospasm, and with the low-density area on CT could be found in the A2 and M1 territories. Decrease of cisternal blood measured by CT after the operation did not relate directly to the reduction of vasospasm. When the SAH was Grade II or III in the basal frontal IHF, the angiographic vasospasm grades at the A2 were significantly lower in patients with surgery via the interhemispheric approach than in those with surgery via the pterional approach. Symptomatic vasospasm occurred in two of the eight cases operated on by the interhemispheric approach compared with 11 of the 22 cases approached via the pterional route. In patients with a pterional approach, there was no significant difference in severity of vasospasm in the M1 territory between the side of approach and the opposite side. No consistent relationship could be found between the time interval from SAH to operation and the severity of vasospasm. While clot removal may ameliorate cerebral vasospasm, its effect per se does not seem to be significant.

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Tetsuji Inagawa, Mitsuo Yamamoto, Kazuko Kamiya and Hidenori Ogasawara

✓ A total of 299 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were classified into three age groups, that is, those aged 59 years or younger (Group 1: 159 patients, 53%), those aged 60 to 69 years (Group 2: 85 patients, 28%), and those aged 70 years or older (Group 3: 55 patients, 18%). A comparison was made of the surgical indications and their overall management outcome in these age groups.

The overall outcome at 1 year after SAH of Group 3 was significantly poorer than that of Group 1 (p < 0.01) or Group 2 (p < 0.01), but no significant difference could be demonstrated between Groups 1 and 2. Overall, 104 of the 299 patients died, for a mortality rate of 35%. The mortality rate by age group was 29% for Group 1, 33% for Group 2, and 55% for Group 3. Surgery was performed on 122 patients (77%) in Group 1, 56 (66%) in Group 2, and 25 (45%) in Group 3. The overall operative outcome at 1 year after SAH in Group 3 was significantly poorer than that of Group 1 (p < 0.01), but no significant difference was observed in this regard between Groups 1 and 2. The operative mortality rate of the patients in Groups 1 , 2, and 3 who were preoperatively in Hunt and Hess Grades I and II was 1%, 7%, and 22%, respectively (no significant difference). By life-table analysis the 5-year survival probability was 65% for Group 1, 60% for Group 2, and 37% for Group 3. The rate of patients surviving in good condition or in a disabled but independent condition at 1 year after SAH was 93% and no statistically significant difference in survival probability was observed among the three age groups.

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Intradural sacral chordoma

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Masatoshi Sumi, Tetsuji Yamamoto, Atsushi Kitagawa and Masanori Ikeda

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Sei Shibuya, Yoji Kawaguchi, Nobuo Arima, Tetsuji Yamamoto, Hiroaki Dobashi and Michiaki Tokuda

✓Tumoral calcinosis commonly occurs in the articular soft tissues of the extremities but rarely in the spine. The authors performed surgery to treat lumbar tumoral calcinosis in a patient with scleroderma, in whom symptoms of neurological dysfunction had manifested.

This 49-year-old woman presented with low-back pain and gait disturbance. Seven years before presentation, scleroderma had been diagnosed, and the patient had received medical treatment ever since. Imaging revealed tumoral calcinosis centered at the bilateral facet joints between L-3 and L-4, marked stenosis of the spinal canal, L-3 spondylolisthesis, and intervertebral instability. Surgery was performed to excise the lesion en bloc. After neural decompression, posterolateral fusion and pedicle screw fixation were undertaken. Symptoms improved after surgery.

In this case, the underlying scleroderma that predisposes to calcinosis and facet joint degeneration due to lumbar spondylolisthesis were probably factors leading to the development of tumoral calcinosis in the lumbar spine.

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Ikuko Yamaguchi, Sei Shibuya, Nobuo Arima, Shiro Oka, Yoshiaki Kanda and Tetsuji Yamamoto

✓ Retroodontoid or periodontoid pseudotumor unassociated with rheumatoid arthritis or hemodialysis is clinically rare. The authors report three cases of retroodontoid pseudotumor that they treated surgically. All patients exhibited myelopathy of the upper cervical spinal cord. Plain radiography depicted atlantoaxial instability in two of the three patients. Spinal cord compression caused by a mass lesion in all patients was clearly demonstrated on magnetic resonance images. In two patients, the mass lesion was not limited to the retroodontoid region and expanded continuously to the cranial base. Posterior laminectomy of the atlas and occipitocervical fusion were performed. After surgery, the pseudotumor disappeared in two cases and was clearly reduced in one case, and neurological symptoms also improved. Retroodontoid pseudotumor is a lesion for which symptomatic improvement can be expected with posterior decompression and fusion, even without direct tumor excision.