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Teng-yu Li, Yu-lun Xu, Jun Yang, James Wang and Gui-Huai Wang


The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, imaging features, differential diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis for primary spinal epidural cavernous hemangiomas.


Fourteen patients with pathologically diagnosed non–vertebral origin cavernous hemangiomas who had undergone surgery at Beijing Tiantan Hospital between 2003 and 2012 were identified in the hospital's database. The patients' clinical data, imaging characteristics, surgical treatment, and postoperative follow-up were analyzed retrospectively.


There were 9 males and 5 females with an average age of 51.64 years. The primary epidural cavernous hemangiomas were located in the cervical spine (2 cases), cervicothoracic junction (2 cases), thoracic spine (8 cases), thoracolumbar junction (1 case), and lumbar spine (1 case). Hemorrhage was confirmed in 4 cases during surgery. Preoperatively 5 lesions were misdiagnosed as schwannoma, 1 was misdiagnosed as a meningioma, and 1 was misdiagnosed as an arachnoid cyst. Preoperative hemorrhages were identified in 2 cases. Three patients had recurrent cavernous hemangiomas. The initial presenting symptoms were local pain in 5 cases, radiculopathy in 6 cases, and myelopathy in 3 cases. Upon admission, 1 patient had radicular symptoms and 13 had myelopathic symptoms. The average symptom duration was 18 months. All patients underwent surgery; complete resection was achieved in 8 cases, subtotal resection in 4 cases, and partial resection in 2 cases. Postoperative follow-up was completed in 10 cases (average follow-up 34 months); 1 patient died, 5 patients showed clinical improvement, and 4 patients remained neurologically unchanged.


Total surgical removal of spine epidural cavernous hemangiomas with a chronic course is the optimum treatment and carries a good prognosis. Secondary surgery for recurrent epidural cavernous hemangioma is technically more challenging. In patients with profound myelopathy from acute hemorrhage, even prompt surgical decompression can rarely reverse all symptoms.

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Teng-yu Li, Jun-sheng Chu, Yu-lun Xu, Jun Yang, James Wang, Yu-Hua Huang, Aij-Lie Kwan and Gui-Huai Wang


The aim of this study was to investigate the surgical strategies and outcomes for spinal ependymomas of different lengths.


The authors used data from 210 patients with spinal ependymomas (WHO Grades II and III) in this 10-year retrospective study (January 1999 to December 2008), dividing them into 3 different groups according to length (spinal ependymomas < 5 cm, 5–10 cm, and > 10 cm). All patients underwent tumor resection. The basic characteristics of the patients were reviewed and the functional status was assessed using the McCormick classification.


There were 89, 81, and 40 patients, respectively, in the 3 groups (< 5 cm, 5–10 cm, and > 10 cm). Grosstotal resections (GTRs) were performed in 172 patients (81.9% overall, or 86.5%, 79.0%, and 77.5% in the 3 groups, respectively). Subtotal and partial resections were achieved in 38 patients (18.1%). Eight patients with medulla oblongata or upper cervical cord tumors received a tracheotomy postoperatively. The follow-up period ranged from 56 to 176 months. One hundred thirty-five patients (76.7%) experienced improvement, (88.2%, 83.8%, and 34.4% in the < 5 cm, 5–10 cm, and > 10 cm groups, respectively). Thirty-three patients (18.8%) maintained their pretreatment status, and 8 patients (4.5%) showed deterioration following tumor resection at 6 months. Tumor recurrence or progression was observed in 6 (2.9%) of the 210 patients. Among the 6 patients, recurrent tumors were located in the conus (n = 3), thoracic (n = 1), and medullocervical cord (n = 2).


Radical resection of spinal ependymomas could be performed in most patients, and the rate of GTR was significantly different in the different-length groups (< 10 cm vs > 10 cm, p = 0.032). Patients with longer tumors had worse surgical results compared with those with small tumors (p < 0.001), and more postoperative neuropathic pain and proprioceptive deficits could usually be observed in patients harboring larger tumors. Early diagnosis and timely operation are critical to achieving better neurological outcomes. For tumors with dense adhesions, complete removal should be performed cautiously because of the significant incidence of neurological deterioration.

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Hong-Qi Zhang, Tong Chen, Shao-Shuai Wu, Liang-Hong Teng, Yong-Zhong Li, Li-Yong Sun, Zhi-Ping Zhang, De-Yu Guo, De-Hong Lu and Feng Ling


The authors undertook this study to establish an animal model to investigate the pathophysiological changes of venous hypertensive myelopathy (VHM).


This study was a randomized control animal study with blinded evaluation. The VHM model was developed in 24 adult New Zealand white rabbits by means of renal artery and vein anastomosis and trapping of the posterior vena cava; 12 rabbits were subjected to sham surgery. The rabbits were investigated by spinal function evaluation, abdominal aortic angiography, spinal MRI, and pathological examination of the spinal cord at different follow-up stages.


Twenty-two (91.67%) of 24 model rabbits survived the surgery and postoperative period. The patency rate of the arteriovenous fistula was 95.45% in these 22 animals. The model rabbits had significantly decreased motor and sensory hindlimb function as well as abnormalities at the corresponding segments of the spinal cord. Pathological examination showed dilation and hyalinization of the small blood vessels, perivascular and intraparenchymal lymphocyte infiltration, proliferation of glial cells, and neuronal degeneration. Electron microscopic examination showed loose lamellar structure of the myelin sheath, increased numbers of mitochondria in the thin myelinated fibers, and pyknotic neurons.


This model of VHM is stable and repeatable. Exploration of the sequential changes in spinal cord and blood vessels has provided improved understanding of this pathology, and the model may have potential for improving therapeutic results.