Eduardo A. Iunes, Enrico A. Barletta, Telmo A. B. Belsuzarri, Franz J. Onishi, André Y. Aihara, Sergio Cavalheiro and Andrei F. Joaquim
The goal of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pseudarthrosis after the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease (CDDD) with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in which self-locking, stand-alone intervertebral cages filled with hydroxyapatite were used.
The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of 49 patients who underwent 1- to 3-level ACDF with self-locking, stand-alone intervertebral cages without plates, with a minimum 2 years of follow-up. The following data were extracted from radiological and clinical charts: age, sex, time and type of pre- and postoperative signs and symptoms, pain status (visual analog scale [VAS]), functional status (Neck Disability Index [NDI]), history of smoking, bone quality (bone densitometry), and complications. Pseudarthrosis was diagnosed by a blinded neuroradiologist using CT scans. Clinical improvement was assessed using pre- and postoperative comparison of VAS and NDI scores. The Wilcoxon test for paired tests was used to evaluate statistical significance using a p value of < 0.05.
Three patients (6%) developed symptomatic pseudarthrosis requiring reoperation, with only 1 patient showing clinical worsening due to pseudarthrosis, while the other 2 with pseudarthrosis had associated disc disease at an adjacent level. The rate of symptomatic pseudarthrosis according to the number of operated levels was 0% for 1 level, 8.7% (2/23 patients) for 2 levels, and 7.7% (1/13 patients) for 3 levels. The total pseudarthrosis rate (including both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients) was 16.4%. Considering the clinical outcomes, there was a significant improvement of 75.6% in neck pain and 95.7% in arm pain, as well as a 64.9% improvement in NDI scores. Complications were observed in 18.4% of patients, with adjacent-level degenerative disease being the most prevalent at 14.3%.
ACDF with self-locking, stand-alone cages filled with a hydroxyapatite graft can be used for the surgical treatment of 1- to 3-level CDDD with clinical and radiological outcomes significantly improved after a minimum 2-year follow-up period. Comparative studies are necessary.
Claudio E. Tatsui, Telmo A. B. Belsuzarri, Marilou Oro, Laurence D. Rhines, Jing Li, Amol J. Ghia, Behrang Amini, Heron Espinoza, Paul D. Brown and Ganesh Rao
An emerging paradigm for treating patients with epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC) caused by metastatic tumors is surgical decompression and stabilization, followed by stereotactic radiosurgery. In the setting of rapid progressive disease, interruption or delay in return to systemic treatment can lead to a negative impact in overall survival. To overcome this limitation, the authors introduce the use of spinal laser interstitial thermotherapy (sLITT) in association with percutaneous spinal stabilization to facilitate a rapid return to oncological treatment.
The authors retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of patients with ESCC and spinal instability who were considered to be poor surgical candidates and instead were treated with sLITT and percutaneous spinal stabilization. Demographic data, Spine Instability Neoplastic Scale score, degree of epidural compression before and after the procedure, length of hospital stay, and time to return to oncological treatment were analyzed.
Eight patients were treated with thermal ablation and percutaneous spinal stabilization. The primary tumors included melanoma (n = 3), lung (n = 3), thyroid (n = 1), and renal cell carcinoma (n = 1). The median Karnofsky Performance Scale score before and after the procedure was 60, and the median hospital stay was 5 days (range 3–18 days). The median Spine Instability Neoplastic Scale score was 13 (range 12–16). The mean modified postoperative ESCC score (2.75 ± 0.37) was significantly lower than the preoperative score (4.5 ± 0.27) (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.0044). The median time to return to oncological treatment was 5 days (range 3–10 days).
The authors present the first cohort of sLITT associated with a percutaneous spinal stabilization for the treatment of ESCC and spinal instability. This minimally invasive technique can allow a faster recovery without prejudice of adjuvant systemic treatment, with adequate local control and spinal stabilization.