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Tatsuya Ishikawa, Kiyohiro Houkin, Kouichi Tokuda, Susumu Kawaguchi and Takeshi Kashiwaba

✓ Dural arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are considered to be acquired lesions that develop secondary to venous obstruction, which sometimes happens in head trauma. However, there has been a report of an anterior cranial fossa dural AVM that occurred independently of a history of head trauma, and there has been speculation that these malformations are congenital.

The authors recount their experience with a patient who had an anterior cranial fossa dural AVM that was discovered incidentally. The lesion was fed by the bilateral anterior ethmoidal arteries and drained into the superior sagittal sinus via frontal cortical veins. The patient had a history of severe head trauma that had occurred 30 years earlier.

This is the first case report in which a previous head trauma is strongly believed to be the cause of an anterior cranial fossa dural AVM. The authors postulate that anterior cranial fossa dural AVMs can develop secondary to a head trauma.

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Kiyohiro Houkin, Hiroyasu Kamiyama, Satoshi Kuroda, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Akihiro Takahashi and Hiroshi Abe

✓ Reconstruction of the carotid artery by using a radial artery graft is a useful option that can produce reliable long-term patency for the surgical treatment of giant and/or large aneurysms of the cavernous and paraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA).

During the past 10 years, 43 patients with intracavernous and paraclinoid giant aneurysms of the ICA have been treated by reconstruction of the ICA with radial artery grafts after ligation of the cervical ICA. The long-term patency of the grafted radial artery was evaluated over more than a 5-year period (mean 7.2 years) in 20 of these patients by using magnetic resonance angiography or conventional angiography. There was no late occlusion of the graft in any of these cases. Stenotic graft changes were observed in two cases.

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Ken Kazumata, Masaki Ito, Kikutaro Tokairin, Yasuhiro Ito, Kiyohiro Houkin, Naoki Nakayama, Satoshi Kuroda, Tatsuya Ishikawa and Hiroyasu Kamiyama

Object

Although combined direct and indirect anastomosis in patients with moyamoya disease immediately increases cerebral blood flow, the surgical procedure is more complex. Data pertinent to the postoperative complications associated with combined bypass are relatively scarce compared with those associated with indirect bypass. This study investigated the incidence and characteristics of postoperative stroke in combined bypass and compared them with those determined from a literature review to obtain data from a large population.

Methods

A total of 358 revascularization procedures in 236 patients were retrospectively assessed by reviewing clinical charts and radiological data. PubMed was searched for published studies on surgical treatment to determine the incidence of postoperative complications in a larger population.

Results

Seventeen instances of postoperative stroke were observed in 16 patients (4.7% per surgery, 95% CI 2.8%–7.5%). Postoperative stroke was more frequent (7.9% per surgery) in adults than in pediatric patients (1.7% per surgery, OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.12–14.7; p < 0.05). Acute progression of stenoocclusive changes were identified in the major cerebral arteries (anterior cerebral artery, n = 3; middle cerebral artery, n = 1; posterior cerebral artery, n = 2). The postoperative stroke rate was comparable with that (5.4%) determined from a literature search that included studies reporting more than 2000 direct/combined procedures. No differences in the stroke rates between the direct/combined and indirect procedures were found. In the literature review, direct/combined bypass was more often associated with excellent revascularization (angiographic opacification greater than two-thirds) than indirect bypass (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

This experience of 358 consecutive procedures is one of the largest series for which the postoperative stoke rate for direct/combined bypass performed with a unified strategy has been reported. A systematic review confirmed that the postoperative stroke rate for the direct/combined procedure was comparable to that for the indirect procedure.

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Masanori Tsuji, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Fujimaro Ishida, Kazuhiro Furukawa, Yoichi Miura, Masato Shiba, Takanori Sano, Hiroshi Tanemura, Yasuyuki Umeda, Shinichi Shimosaka and Hidenori Suzuki

OBJECT

Histopathological examination has revealed that ruptured cerebral aneurysms have different hemostatic patterns depending on the location of the clot formation. In this study, the authors investigated whether the hemostatic patterns had specific hemodynamic features using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis.

METHODS

Twenty-six ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms were evaluated by 3D CT angiography and harvested at the time of clipping. The hemostatic patterns at the rupture points were assessed by means of histopathological examination, and morphological parameters were obtained. Transient analysis was performed, and wall shear stress–related hemodynamic parameters and invariant Q (vortex core region) were calculated. The morphological and hemodynamic parameters were compared among the hemostatic patterns.

RESULTS

Hematoxylin and eosin staining of the aneurysm wall showed 13 inside-pattern, 9 outside-pattern, and 4 other-pattern aneurysms. Three of the 26 aneurysms were excluded from further analysis, because their geometry models could not be generated due to low vascular CT values. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed that lower dome volume (0.04 cm3 vs 0.12 cm3, p = 0.014), gradient oscillatory number (0.0234 vs 0.0289, p = 0.023), invariant Q (−0.801 10−2/sec2 vs −0.124 10−2/sec2, p = 0.045) and higher aneurysm formation indicator (0.986 vs 0.963, p = 0.041) were significantly related to inside-pattern aneurysms when compared with outside-pattern aneurysms.

CONCLUSIONS

Inside-pattern aneurysms may have simpler flow patterns and less flow stagnation than outside-pattern aneurysms. CFD may be useful to characterize the hemostatic pattern of ruptured cerebral aneurysms.

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Shunsuke Nomura, Koji Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Akitsugu Kawashima, Yoshikazu Okada and Takakazu Kawamata

OBJECTIVE

Effectively retaining the patency of the extracranial-intracranial (ECIC) bypass is one of the most important factors in improving long-term results; however, the factors influencing bypass patency have not been discussed much. Therefore, the authors investigated factors influencing the development of the bypass graft.

METHODS

In this retrospective study, the authors evaluated 49 consecutive hemispheres in 47 adult Japanese patients who had undergone ECIC bypass for chronic steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. To evaluate objectively the development of the ECIC bypass graft, the change in the area of the main trunk portion of the superficial temporal artery (STA) from before to after bypass surgery (postop/preop STA) was measured. Using the interquartile range (IQR), the authors statistically analyzed the factors associated with excellent (> 3rd quartile) and poor development (< 1st quartile) of the bypass graft.

RESULTS

The postop/preop STA ranged from 1.08 to 6.13 (median 1.97, IQR 1.645–2.445). There was a significant difference in the postop/preop STA between the presence and absence of concurrent diabetes mellitus (p = 0.0432) and hyperlipidemia (0.0069). Furthermore, logistic regression analysis revealed that only concurrent diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with poor development of the bypass graft (p = 0.0235).

CONCLUSIONS

Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia influenced the development of the ECIC bypass graft. In particular, diabetes mellitus is the only factor associated with poor development of the bypass graft.

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Eiichi Ishikawa, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Takashi Maruyama, Koji Tsuboi, Soko Ikuta, Koichi Hashimoto, Youji Uemae, Takeshi Ishihara, Masahide Matsuda, Masao Matsutani, Katsuyuki Karasawa, Yoichi Nakazato, Tatsuya Abe, Tadao Ohno and Akira Matsumura

Object

Temozolomide (TMZ) may enhance antitumor immunity in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In this paper the authors report on a prospective Phase I/IIa clinical trial of fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) concomitant with TMZ therapy, followed by treatment with autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV) and TMZ maintenance in patients with newly diagnosed GBM.

Methods

Twenty-four patients (age 16–75 years, Karnofsky Performance Scale score ≥ 60% before initiation of FRT) with newly diagnosed GBM received a total dose of 60 Gy of FRT with daily concurrent TMZ. After a 4-week interval, the patients received 3 AFTV injections and the first course of TMZ maintenance chemotherapy for 5 days, followed by multiple courses of TMZ for 5 days in each 28-day cycle.

Results

This treatment regimen was well tolerated by all patients. The percentage of patients with progression-free survival (PFS) ≥ 24 months was 33%. The median PFS, median overall survival (OS), and the actuarial 2- and 3-year survival rates of the 24 patients were 8.2 months, 22.2 months, 47%, and 38%, respectively. The median PFS in patients with a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response after the third AFTV injection (DTH-2) of 10 mm or larger surpassed the median length of follow-up for progression-free patients (29.5 months), which was significantly greater than the median PFS in patients with a smaller DTH-2 response.

Conclusions

The treatment regimen was well tolerated and resulted in favorable PFS and OS for newly diagnosed GBM patients. Clinical trial registration no.: UMIN000001426 (UMIN clinical trials registry, Japan).