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Song-tao Qi, Jun Fan, Xi-an Zhang, and Jun Pan

Object

A precise understanding of the ambient cistern and its associated arachnoid membranes is helpful for accessing perimesencephalic lesions. However, few studies of the arachnoid membranes related to the ambient cistern have been published, and, additionally, some aspects of the ambient cistern also require further examination. The goal of this study was to reinvestigate and expound on the anatomical features of the cistern and membranes.

Methods

The ambient cisterns and its associated arachnoid membranes were examined in 20 adult cadaveric brains using an operative microscope.

Results

The perimesencephalic membrane is a set of inner arachnoid membranes surrounding the midbrain at the level of the tentorial incisura. It arises from the outer arachnoidal membranes covering the tentorial edge and the dorsum sellae and can be subdivided into anterior and posterior portions. The anterior membrane is actually the mesencephalic leaf of Liliequist membrane, which is divided into medial and lateral parts by the oculomotor nerve. The posterior membrane can be divided into horizontal and ascending parts. The ambient cistern is located above the perimesencephalic membrane and contains the anterior choroidal arteries, the posterior cerebral arteries, the basal vein, and sometimes the segments of the superior cerebellar arteries. It communicates with the carotid cistern, the interpeduncular cistern, the oculomotor cistern, the cerebellopontine and cerebellomesencephalic cistern, and the quadrigeminal cistern.

Conclusions

This study updates some information about the ambient cistern and its arachnoid membranes. The perimesencephalic membrane was identified and described in detail. The ambient cistern was verified to be a supratentorial cistern above the perimesencephalic membrane. The borders and contents of this cistern, as well as its relationship with adjacent cisterns, were also redefined.

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Chao-hu Wang, Song-Tao Qi, Jun Fan, Jun Pan, Jun-Xiang Peng, Jing Nie, Yun Bao, Ya-Wei Liu, Xi’an Zhang, and Yi Liu

OBJECTIVE

Nuclear β-catenin, a hallmark of active canonical Wnt signaling, can be histologically detected in a subset of cells and cell clusters in up to 94% of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) samples. However, it is unclear whether nuclear β-catenin–containing cells within human ACPs possess the characteristics of tumor stem cells, and it is unknown what role these cells have in ACP.

METHODS

Primary ACP cells were cultured from 12 human ACP samples. Adamantinomatous CP stem cell–like cells (CSLCs) showing CD44 positivity were isolated from the cultured primary ACP cells by performing magnetic-activated cell sorting. The tumor sphere formation, cell cycle distribution, stemness marker expression, and multidifferentiation potential of the CD44− cells and the CSLCs were analyzed.

RESULTS

Compared with the CD44− cells, the cultured human CSLCs formed tumor spheres and expressed CD44 and CD133; moreover, these cells demonstrated nuclear translocation of β-catenin. In addition, the CSLCs demonstrated osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacities compared with the CD44− cells. The CSLCs also displayed the capacity for tumor initiation in human–mouse xenografts.

CONCLUSIONS

These results indicate that CSLCs play an important role in ACP development, calcification, and cystic degeneration.

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Hui-Ren Tao, Tian-Li Yang, Michael S. Chang, Huan Li, Da-Wei Zhang, Hong-Bin Fan, Chao Shen, and Zhuo-Jing Luo

Tethered cord is a common finding in congenital scoliosis. The most frequently advocated approach for this condition is to perform prophylactic detethering of the cord before scoliosis corrective surgery. The authors report on a 14-year-old patient with congenital thoracic kyphoscoliosis associated with a tethered cord, who developed progressive paraparesis and was successfully treated by posterior spine shortening osteotomy alone without prophylactic untethering. The patient had a 103° scoliotic curve together with a 93° kyphotic curve with an apical vertebra of T-7. Furthermore, he developed a significant progression of neurological deficits, including weakness of both legs and urinary and bowel incontinence. Preoperative MRI revealed that the spinal cord was entrapped by the apical vertebra and the low-placed conus medullaris was at approximately L-5. A posterior vertebral column resection of T-7 was performed for the purpose of simultaneously correcting the kyphoscoliosis and releasing tension on the tethered cord without a true detethering surgery. The patient's spinal cord function recovered completely from Frankel D to Frankel E by 6 months after the procedure. Evaluation at 31 months after surgery showed maintenance of good curve correction and normal neurological function.

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Yongheng Wang, Yinyan Wang, Xing Fan, Shaowu Li, Xing Liu, Jiangfei Wang, and Tao Jiang

OBJECTIVE

Insular glioma has a unique origin and biological behavior; however, the associations between its anatomical features and prognosis have not been well established. The object of this study was to propose a classification system of insular low-grade gliomas based on preoperative MRI findings and to assess the system's association with survival outcome.

METHODS

A total of 211 consecutively collected patients diagnosed with low-grade insular gliomas was analyzed. All patients were classified according to whether tumor involved the putamen on MR images. The prognostic role of this novel putaminal classification, as well as that of Yaşargil's classification, was examined using multivariate analyses.

RESULTS

Ninety-nine cases (46.9%) of insular gliomas involved the putamen. Those tumors involving the putamen, as compared with nonputaminal tumors, were larger (p < 0.001), less likely to be associated with a history of seizures (p = 0.04), more likely to have wild-type IDH1 (p = 0.003), and less likely to be totally removed (p = 0.02). Significant favorable predictors of overall survival on univariate analysis included a high preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score (p = 0.02), a history of seizures (p = 0.04), gross-total resection (p = 0.006), nonputaminal tumors (p < 0.001), and an IDH1 mutation (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, extent of resection (p = 0.035), putamen classification (p = 0.014), and IDH1 mutation (p = 0.026) were independent predictors of overall survival. No prognostic role was found for Yaşargil's classification.

CONCLUSIONS

The current study's findings suggest that the putamen classification is an independent predictor of survival outcome in patients with insular low-grade gliomas. This newly proposed classification allows preoperative survival prediction for patients with insular gliomas.

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Ye Gu, Xiaobiao Zhang, Fan Hu, Yong Yu, Tao Xie, Chongjing Sun, and Wensheng Li

OBJECT

The translamina terminalis corridor was used in the transcranial anterior route to treat third ventricular craniopharyngioma (TVC), which presents a challenge to neurosurgeons. The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has recently been used to treat craniopharyngiomas. However, there are few reports of the EEA being used to treat TVC. The authors' novel surgical approach of treating selected TVC by the endoscopic endonasal route via the suprachiasmatic translamina terminalis (STLT) corridor is described.

METHODS

In this single-center study, the EEA via the STLT corridor was used to resect TVC with great upper and anterior extension causing bulged lamina terminalis, and TVC with a residual upper compartment, after routine infrachiasmatic transmetastalk corridor resection.

RESULTS

The STLT corridor was used in 3 patients. Gross-total resection was achieved in all cases. One patient achieved visual improvement, and the other 2 patients showed partial visual improvement. Leakage of CSF occurred in 1 patient. Postoperative hormone replacement therapy was required in all patients.

CONCLUSIONS

The STLT corridor is a complementary minimally invasive corridor used in the EEA for treating selected TVC. The STLT alone or combined with infrachiasmatic transmetastalk corridors should be selected depending on the size of suprachiasmatic and infrachiasmatic space.

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Xi-an Zhang, Song-tao Qi, Jun Fan, Guang-long Huang, and Jun-xiang Peng

Object

The aim of this study was to describe the similarity of configuration between the arachnoid complex in the posterior half of the incisural space and the Liliequist membrane.

Methods

Microsurgical dissection and anatomical observation were performed in 20 formalin-fixed adult cadaver heads. The origin, distribution, and configuration of the arachnoid membranes and their relationships with the vascular structures in the posterior half of the incisural space were examined.

Results

The posterior perimesencephalic membrane and the cerebellar precentral membrane have a common origin at the tentorial edge and form an arachnoid complex strikingly resembling an inverted Liliequist membrane. Asymmetry between sides is not uncommon. If the cerebellar precentral membrane is hypoplastic on one side or both, the well-developed quadrigeminal membrane plays a prominent part in partitioning the subarachnoid space in the posterior half of the incisural space.

Conclusions

The arachnoid complex in the posterior half of the incisural space can be regarded as an inverted Liliequist membrane. This concept can help neurosurgeons to gain better understanding of the surgical anatomy at the level of the tentorial incisura.