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Mehmet Yasar Kaynar, Taner Tanriverdi, Ali Metin Kafadar, Tibet Kacira, Hafize Uzun, Seval Aydin, Koray Gumustas, Ahmet Dirican and Cengiz Kuday

Object. The aim of this study was to explore whether levels of intercellular adhesion molecule—1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule—1 (VCAM-1) are elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

Methods. This prospective clinical study focused on 21 patients who had recently suffered an SAH due to aneurysmal rupture and 15 control patients with hydrocephalus who had no other central nervous system disease. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples obtained within the first 3 days and on the 5th and 7th days of SAH were assayed for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by using quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Levels of soluble forms of ICAM-1 (p = 0.00001) and VCAM-1 (p = 0.009) in the patients' CSF and those of ICAM-1 (p = 0.00001) and VCAM-1 (p = 0.00001) in their serum were found to be elevated after SAH compared with levels in the CSF and serum of control patients with hydrocephalus. In addition, when the authors compared the increased levels of adhesion molecules in the CSF and serum of patients after SAH, the only statistically insignificant difference that they found was between the levels of VCAM-1 in serum obtained on Days 5 and 7 after SAH (p = 0.27).

Conclusions. Adhesion molecules are a group of macromolecules that may participate in the inflammatory process, a common pathway leading to vasospasm after SAH. Leukocyte adherence to the vascular endothelium, which is induced by adhesion molecules, has been believed to be the initial signal of the development of vasospasm. The authors have demonstrated the synchronized elevation of two adhesion molecules in both CSF and serum following aneurysmal SAH. Blocking of ICAM-1 as well as VCAM-1 by monoclonal antibodies post-SAH may provide a beneficial effect on vasospasm.

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Taner Tanriverdi, Andre Olivier, Nicole Poulin, Frederick Andermann and François Dubeau

Object

Resection strategies for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are a matter of discussion, and little information is available. The aim of this study was to compare seizure outcomes at the 5-year follow-up in patients with medically refractory unilateral mesial TLE (MTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who were treated using a cortical amygdalohippocampectomy (CorAH) or a selective AH (SelAH).

Methods

The authors obtained data from 100 adult patients who underwent surgery for MTLE. Fifty patients underwent a CorAH and 50 underwent an SelAH. Seizure control achieved with each technique was compared using the Engel classification scheme.

Results

Overall, at the 5-year follow-up, favorable (Engel Classes I and II) seizure outcomes were noted in 82 and 90% of patients who had undergone CorAH and SelAH, respectively. Furthermore, 40% of the patients who had undergone a CorAH and 58% of those who had undergone an SelAH were seizure free (Engel Class Ia). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 surgical approaches in terms of seizure outcome at the 5-year follow-up (p = 0.38).

Conclusions

Both CorAH and SelAH can lead to similar favorable seizure control in patients with MTLE/HS. However, the authors suggest that the transcortical selective approach has the great advantage of minimizing or completely abolishing the impact of dividing several venous and arterial adhesions which are tedious, time consuming, and, at times, associated with some degree of cerebral swelling.

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Taner Tanriverdi, André Olivier, Nicole Poulin, Frederick Andermann and François Dubeau

Object

The authors report long-term follow-up seizure outcome in patients who underwent corpus callosotomy during the period 1981–2001 at the Montreal Neurological Institute.

Methods

The records of 95 patients with a minimum follow-up of 5 years (mean 17.2 years) were retrospectively evaluated with respect to seizure, medication outcomes, and prognostic factors on seizure outcome.

Results

All patients had more than one type of seizure, most frequently drop attacks and generalized tonicclonic seizures. The most disabling seizure type was drop attacks, followed by generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Improvement was noted in several seizure types and was most likely for generalized tonic-clonic seizures (77.3%) and drop attacks (77.2%). Simple partial, generalized tonic, and myoclonic seizures also benefited from anterior callosotomy. The extent of the callosal section was correlated with favorable seizure outcome. The complications were mild and transient and no death was seen.

Conclusions

This study confirms that anterior callosotomy is an effective treatment in intractable generalized seizures that are not amenable to focal resection. When considering this procedure, the treating physician must thoroughly assess the expected benefits, limitations, likelihood of residual seizures, and the risks, and explain them to the patient, his or her family, and other caregivers.

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Taner Tanriverdi, Abdulrazag Ajlan, Nicole Poulin and Andre Olivier

Object

In this paper the authors aimed to provide information related to major and minor surgical and neurological complications encountered following stereoelectroencephalography and epilepsy surgery.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective review of 491 and 1905 patients who underwent intracranial electrode implantation and epilepsy surgery, respectively, between 1976 and 2006 at the Montreal Neurological Institute. All intracranial electrode implantations and surgical procedures were performed by 1 surgeon (A.O.).

Results

A total of 6415 electrode implantations and 2449 surgical procedures were done. There were no deaths related to either procedure. There were no major complications after intracranial electrode implantation, and the risks of infection and intracranial hematoma were found to be 1.8 and 0.8%, respectively. The number of electrodes per lobe (p = 0.05) and number of lobes covered (p = 0.04) were significant risk factors for hematoma and infection. Regarding epilepsy surgery, there were no major surgical complications, and the overall minor complication rate was 2.9%. Infection was the most common complication (1.0%), followed by intracranial hematoma (0.7%). Significant risk factors associated with hematomas and infections were the number of reoperations (p = 0.001) and older patient age (p = 0.03). Minor and major neurological complication rates were 2.7 and 0.5%, respectively, and the rate of overall neurological morbidity was 3.3%. Hemiparesis was the most frequent neurological complication (1.5%).

Conclusions

Based on the authors' experience, intracranial electrode implantation is an effective method with an extremely low morbidity rate. Moreover, epilepsy surgery is safe, especially in experienced hands.

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Editorial

Diffusion tensor tractography and epilepsy

Fredric B. Meyer

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Taner Tanriverdi, Roy William Roland Dudley, Alya Hasan, Ahmed Al Jishi, Qasim Al Hinai, Nicole Poulin, M.Ed., Sophie Colnat-Coulbois and André Olivier

Object

The aim of this study was to compare IQ and memory outcomes at the 1-year follow-up in patients with medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis. All patients were treated using a corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH) or a selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH).

Methods

The data of 256 patients who underwent surgery for MTLE were retrospectively evaluated. One hundred twenty-three patients underwent a CAH (63 [right side] and 60 [left side]), and 133 underwent an SelAH (61 [right side] and 72 [left side]). A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was assessed before and 1 year after surgery, and the results were compared between the surgical procedures. Furthermore, seizure outcome was compared using the Engel classification scheme.

Results

At 1-year follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference between the surgical approaches with respect to seizure outcome. Overall, IQ scores showed improvement, but verbal IQ decreased after left SelAH. Verbal memory impairment was seen after left-sided resections especially in cases of SelAH, and nonverbal memory decreased after right-sided resection, especially for CAH. Left-sided resections produced some improvement in nonverbal memory. Older age at surgery, longer duration of seizures, greater seizure frequency before surgery, and poor seizure control after surgery were associated with poorer memory.

Conclusions

Both CAH and SelAH can lead to several cognitive impairments depending on the side of the surgery. The authors suggest that the optimal type of surgical approach should be decided on a case-by-case basis.

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Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Kelvin Mok, Denise Klein, Sidonie Pénicaud, Taner Tanriverdi and André Olivier

Object

The aim of this study was to evaluate, using diffusion tensor tractography, the white matter fibers crossing the hippocampus and the amygdala, and to perform a volumetric analysis and an anatomical study of the connections of these 2 structures. As a second step, the authors studied the white matter tracts crossing a virtual volume of resection corresponding to a selective amygdalohippocampectomy.

Methods

Twenty healthy right-handed individuals underwent 3-T MR imaging. Volumetric regions of interest were manually created to delineate the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the volume of resection. White matter fiber tracts were parcellated using the fiber assignment for continuous tracking tractography algorithm. All fibers were registered with the anatomical volumes.

Results

In all participants, the authors identified fibers following the hippocampus toward the fornix, the splenium of the corpus callosum, and the dorsal hippocampal commissure. With respect to the fibers crossing the amygdala, the authors identified the stria terminalis and the uncinate fasciculus. The virtual resection disrupted part of the fornix, fibers connecting the 2 hippocampi, and fibers joining the orbitofrontal cortex. The approach created a theoretical frontotemporal disconnection and also interrupted fibers joining the temporal pole and the occipital area.

Conclusions

This diffusion tensor tractography study allowed for good visualization of some of the connections of the amygdala and hippocampus. The authors observed that the virtual selective amygdalohippocampectomy disconnected a large number of fibers connecting frontal, temporal, and occipital areas.