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Keren Rosenberg, Erez Nossek, Ronit Liebling, Itzhak Fried, Irit Shapira-Lichter, Talma Hendler and Zvi Ram

Object

Resection of lesions involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) may result in immediate postoperative motor and speech deficits that are reversible in most cases. In the present study the authors aimed to determine the critical involvement of SMA in the lesioned and healthy hemispheres in this functional recovery. They hypothesized that compensatory mechanisms take place following surgery in the SMA, and that these mechanisms can involve either the lesioned or the non-lesioned hemisphere. In addition, they hypothesized that a correlation will be present between the functional MR imaging (fMR) imaging–related activation in the SMA and the occurrence of a functional deficit during intraoperative cortical stimulation.

Methods

Twenty-six patients scheduled for resection of space-occupying lesions involving, or in the vicinity of, the SMA were recruited. Patients underwent an fMR imaging examination that included finger-tapping and verb-generation tests to assess for motor and language functions. Intraoperatively direct cortical stimulation (DCS) of the SMA region was performed while patients were monitored for language and motor functions using tests similar to those used for the fMR imaging. Task dysfunction during DCS assessed the critical involvement of the SMA in the tested functions. Neurological evaluations were performed prior to surgery and at 3 time points within a month following surgery. A region of interest–based approach was used to evaluate fMR imaging blood oxygen level–dependent activation level and asymmetry in the SMA. These measurements were later compared with the intraoperative DCS and neurological findings.

Results

Functional MR imaging showed greater activation and dominance of the SMA in the lesioned hemisphere in patients who exhibited no motor or language dysfunction during DCS. In addition, patients with the highest activation of the SMA in the lesioned hemisphere for language and motor tests showed stronger coupling of this region with ipsilateral motor and language networks. In contrast, activation in the nonlesioned hemisphere did not correspond with DCS results.

Conclusions

The authors' findings demonstrate the necessity of activation in the vicinity of the lesioned SMA for functional compensation in motor and language tasks. It is possible that more effective functional coupling of the SMA with motor and language areas in the same hemisphere prevents dysfunctions following surgical intervention. Importantly, fMR imaging activation in the unaffected SMA was not sufficient for development of functional compensation and, if anything, indicated decompensation.

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Talma Hendler, Pazit Pianka, Michal Sigal, Michal Kafri, Dafna Ben-Bashat, Shlomi Constantini, Moshe Graif, Itzhak Fried and Yaniv Assaf

Object. The role of functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging has become increasingly important in the presurgical mapping of gray matter. Neurosurgical interventions often involve fiber bundles that connect critical functional areas. Recently, diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging has enabled the visualization of fiber bundle direction and integrity, thus providing the ability to delineate clearly white matter from gray matter tissue. The main objective of this study was to improve the presurgical assessment of critical functionality in the vicinity of brain lesions by combining DT and fMR imaging methodologies.

Methods. Twenty patients with various space-occupying brain lesions underwent imaging for presurgical evaluation of motor and/or somatosensory functions. The authors focus on five patients with diverse space-occupying brain lesions. Diffusion tensor—based fiber tracking and fMR imaging activation maps were superimposed in three dimensions to visualize pyramidal tracts corresponding to motor and somatosensory regional activation.

Conclusions. The combination of DT and fMR imaging for presurgical functional brain mapping provides valuable information that cannot be extracted using either method alone. The validity and sensitivity of noninvasive functional mapping for surgical guidance could be improved by considering results obtained with both methods. Furthermore, the use of three-dimensional visualization seems crucial and unique for viewing and understanding the complicated spatial relationship among the lesion, gray matter activation, and white matter fiber bundles.

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Tomer Gazit, Fani Andelman, Yifat Glikmann-Johnston, Tal Gonen, Aliya Solski, Irit Shapira-Lichter, Moran Ovadia, Svetlana Kipervasser, Miriam Y. Neufeld, Itzhak Fried, Talma Hendler and Daniella Perry

OBJECTIVE

Providing a reliable assessment of language lateralization is an important task to be performed prior to neurosurgery in patients with epilepsy. Over the last decade, functional MRI (fMRI) has emerged as a useful noninvasive tool for language lateralization, supplementing or replacing traditional invasive methods. In standard practice, fMRI-based language lateralization is assessed qualitatively by visual inspection of fMRI maps at a specific chosen activation threshold. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a new computational technique for providing the probability of each patient to be left, right, or bilateral dominant in language processing.

METHODS

In 76 patients with epilepsy, a language lateralization index was calculated using the verb-generation fMRI task over a wide range of activation thresholds (from a permissive threshold, analyzing all brain regions, to a harsh threshold, analyzing only the strongest activations). The data were classified using a probabilistic logistic regression method.

RESULTS

Concordant results between fMRI and Wada lateralization were observed in 89% of patients. Bilateral and right-dominant groups showed similar fMRI lateralization patterns differentiating them from the left-dominant group but still allowing classification in 82% of patients.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings present the utility of a semi-supervised probabilistic learning approach for presurgical language-dominance mapping, which may be extended to other cognitive domains such as memory and attention.

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Erez Nossek, Akiva Korn, Tal Shahar, Andrew A. Kanner, Hillary Yaffe, Daniel Marcovici, Carmit Ben-Harosh, Haim Ben Ami, Maya Weinstein, Irit Shapira-Lichter, Shlomi Constantini, Talma Hendler and Zvi Ram

Object

Preserving motor function is a major challenge in surgery for intraaxial brain tumors. Navigation systems are unreliable in predicting the location of the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) because of brain shift and the inability of current intraoperative systems to produce reliable diffusion tensor imaging data. The authors describe their experience with elaborate neurophysiological assessment and tractography-based navigation, corrected in real time by 3D intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) to identify motor pathways during subcortical tumor resection.

Methods

A retrospective analysis was conducted in 55 patients undergoing resection of tumors located within or in proximity to the CSTs at the authors' institution between November 2007 and June 2009. Corticospinal tract tractography was coregistered to surgical navigation-derived images in 42 patients. Direct cortical-stimulated motor evoked potentials (dcMEPs) and subcortical-stimulated MEPs (scrtMEPs) were recorded intraoperatively to assess function and estimate the distance from the CSTs. Intraoperative ultrasonography updated the navigation imaging and estimated resection proximity to the CSTs. Preoperative clinical motor function was compared with postoperative outcome at several time points and correlated with incidences of intraoperative dcMEP alarm and low scrtMEP values.

Results

The threshold level needed to elicit scrtMEPs was plotted against the distance to the CSTs based on diffusion tensor imaging tractography after brain shift compensation with 3D IOUS, generating a trend line that demonstrated a linear order between these variables, and a relationship of 0.97 mA for every 1 mm of brain tissue distance from the CSTs. Clinically, 39 (71%) of 55 patients had no postoperative deficits, and 9 of the remaining 16 improved to baseline function within 1 month. Seven patients had varying degrees of permanent motor deficits. Subcortical stimulation was applied in 45 of the procedures. The status of 32 patients did not deteriorate postoperatively (stable or improved motor status): 27 of them (84%) displayed minimum scrtMEP thresholds > 7 mA. Six patients who experienced postoperative deterioration quickly recovered (within 5 days) and displayed minimum scrtMEP thresholds > 6.8 mA. Five of the 7 patients who had late (> 5 days postoperatively) or no recovery had minimal scrtMEP thresholds < 3 mA. An scrtMEP threshold of 3 mA was found to be the cutoff point below which irreversible disruption of CST integrity may be anticipated (sensitivity 83%, specificity 95%).

Conclusions

Combining elaborate neurophysiological assessment, tractography-based neuronavigation, and updated IOUS images provided accurate localization of the CSTs and enabled the safe resection of tumors approximating these tracts. This is the first attempt to evaluate the distance from the CSTs using the threshold of subcortical monopolar stimulation with real-time IOUS for the correction of brain shift. The linear correlation between the distance to the CSTs and the threshold of subcortical stimulation producing a motor response provides an intraoperative technique to better preserve motor function.