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Motonori Kohno, Yuichi Iwamura, Riki Inasaka, Gosuke Akiyama, Shota Higashihira, Takuya Kawai, Takanori Niimura and Yutaka Inaba

OBJECTIVE

This retrospective study aimed to clarify the influence of comorbid severe knee osteoarthritis (KOA) on surgical outcome in terms of sagittal spinopelvic/lower-extremity alignment in elderly patients with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS).

METHODS

In total, 110 patients aged at least 65 years (27 men, 83 women; mean age 74.0 years) who underwent short-segment lumbar fusion were included in the present study. Using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system, patients were categorized into those with no to mild KOA (the mild-OA group: KL grades 0–2), moderate KOA (moderate-OA group: KL grade 3), or severe KOA (severe-OA group: KL grade 4). Surgical results were assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system, and spinopelvic/lower-extremity parameters were compared among the 3 groups. Adjacent-segment disease (ASD) was assessed over a mean follow-up period of 4.7 years (range 2–8.1 years).

RESULTS

The study cohort was split into the mild-OA group (42 patients), the moderate-OA group (28 patients), and the severe-OA group (40 patients). The severe-OA group contained significantly more women (p = 0.037) and patients with double-level listhesis (p = 0.012) compared with the other groups. No significant differences were found in mean postoperative JOA scores or recovery rate among the 3 groups. The mean postoperative JOA subscore for restriction of activities of daily living was only significantly lower in the severe-OA group compared with the other groups (p = 0.010). The severe-OA group exhibited significantly greater pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, and knee flexion angle (KFA), along with a smaller degree of lumbar lordosis than the mild-OA group both pre- and postoperatively (all p < 0.05). Overall, the rate of radiographic ASD was observed to be higher in the severe-OA group than in the mild-OA group (p = 0.015). Patients with ASD in the severe-OA group exhibited significantly greater pelvic tilt, pre- and postoperatively, along with less lumbar lordosis, than the patients without ASD postoperatively (all p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

A lack of lumbar lordosis caused by double-level listhesis and knee flexion contracture compensated for by far greater pelvic retroversion is experienced by elderly patients with DLS and severe KOA. Therefore, corrective lumbar surgery and knee arthroplasty may be considered to improve sagittal alignment, which may contribute to the prevention of ASD, resulting in favorable long-term surgical outcomes.

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Takuya Kawabe, Masaaki Yamamoto, Yasunori Sato, Shoji Yomo, Takeshi Kondoh, Osamu Nagano, Toru Serizawa, Takahiko Tsugawa, Hisayo Okamoto, Atsuya Akabane, Kazuyasu Aita, Manabu Sato, Hidefumi Jokura, Jun Kawagishi, Takashi Shuto, Hideya Kawai, Akihito Moriki, Hiroyuki Kenai, Yoshiyasu Iwai, Masazumi Gondo, Toshinori Hasegawa, Soichiro Yasuda, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Yasushi Nagatomo, Shinya Watanabe and Naoya Hashimoto

OBJECTIVE

In 1999, the World Health Organization categorized large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung as a variant of large cell carcinoma, and LCNEC now accounts for 3% of all lung cancers. Although LCNEC is categorized among the non–small cell lung cancers, its biological behavior has recently been suggested to be very similar to that of a small cell pulmonary malignancy. The clinical outcome for patients with LCNEC is generally poor, and the optimal treatment for this malignancy has not yet been established. Little information is available regarding management of LCNEC patients with brain metastases (METs). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for patients with brain METs from LCNEC.

METHODS

The Japanese Leksell Gamma Knife Society planned this retrospective study in which 21 Gamma Knife centers in Japan participated. Data from 101 patients were reviewed for this study. Most of the patients with LCNEC were men (80%), and the mean age was 67 years (range 39–84 years). Primary lung tumors were reported as well controlled in one-third of the patients. More than half of the patients had extracranial METs. Brain metastasis and lung cancer had been detected simultaneously in 25% of the patients. Before GKRS, brain METs had manifested with neurological symptoms in 37 patients. Additionally, prior to GKRS, resection was performed in 17 patients and radiation therapy in 10. A small cell lung carcinoma–based chemotherapy regimen was chosen for 48 patients. The median lesion number was 3 (range 1–33). The median cumulative tumor volume was 3.5 cm3, and the median radiation dose was 20.0 Gy. For statistical analysis, the standard Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine post-GKRS survival. Competing risk analysis was applied to estimate GKRS cumulative incidences of maintenance of neurological function and death, local recurrence, appearance of new lesions, and complications.

RESULTS

The overall median survival time (MST) was 9.6 months. MSTs for patients classified according to the modified recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) system were 25.7, 11.0, and 5.9 months for Class 1+2a (20 patients), Class 2b (28), and Class 3 (46), respectively. At 12 months after GKRS, neurological death–free and deterioration–free survival rates were 93% and 87%, respectively. Follow-up imaging studies were available in 78 patients. The tumor control rate was 86% at 12 months after GKRS.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study suggests that GKRS is an effective treatment for LCNEC patients with brain METs, particularly in terms of maintaining neurological status.