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Kotaro Nakaya, Motohiro Hayashi, Masahiro Izawa, Taku Ochiai, Tomokatsu Hori, and Kintomo Takakura


Stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastasis has become one of the standard treatment options in recent years. Some patients must undergo repeated stereotactic radiosurgery for new lesions. The authors retrospectively reviewed their data to estimate how soon the patients undergo repeated radiosurgery for new lesions.


Between October 1999 and March 2006, 1081 patients with brain metastases underwent Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) at Tokyo Women's Medical University. One hundred and forty-nine patients in whom GKS had been performed two or more times were evaluated. There were 68 men and 81 women with a median age of 61 years (range 29–90 years). The authors analyzed data on patient age, number of treated lesions, and period between GKSs. Follow-up imaging was performed in almost all patients every 2 to 3 months after GKS.

The number of lesions treated in a single session varied from one to 35. The median interval between GKSs was 26 weeks (range 3–175 weeks) for patients with breast cancer and 23 weeks (range 4–179 weeks) for patients with non–small cell lung carcinoma.


It would appear that follow-up imaging studies should be obtained every 2 to 3 months after GKS to monitor patients for tumor recurrence.

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Shiro Horisawa, Taku Ochiai, Shinichi Goto, Takeshi Nakajima, Nobuhiko Takeda, Takakazu Kawamata, and Takaomi Taira


Meige syndrome is characterized by blepharospasm and varied subphenotypes of craniocervical dystonia. Current literature on pallidal surgery for Meige syndrome is limited to case reports and a few small-scale studies. The authors investigated the clinical outcomes of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) in patients with Meige syndrome.


Sixteen patients who underwent GPi DBS at the Tokyo Women’s Medical University Hospital between 2002 and 2015 were included in this study. Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS) movement subscale (BFMDRS-M) scores (range 0–120) obtained at the following 3 time points were included in this analysis: before surgery, 3 months after surgery, and at the most recent follow-up evaluation.


The patients’ mean age (± SD) at symptom onset was 46.7 ± 10.1 years, and the mean disease duration at the time of the authors’ initial evaluation was 5.9 ± 4.1 years. In 12 patients, the initial symptom was blepharospasm, and the other 4 patients presented with cervical dystonia. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 66.6 ± 40.7 months (range 13–150 months). The mean total BFMDRS-M scores at the 3 time points were 16.3 ± 5.5, 5.5 ± 5.6 (66.3% improvement, p < 0.001), and 6.7 ± 7.3 (58.9% improvement, p < 0.001).


The results indicate long-term efficacy for GPi DBS for the majority of patients with Meige syndrome.

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Tomokatsu Hori, Fumitaka Yamane, Taku Ochiai, Shinji Kondo, Satoru Shimizu, Kenji Ishii, and Hajime Miyata


The authors evaluated operative, neuropathological, and neuropsychological results after selective subtemporal amygdalohippocampectomy for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy in patients who were observed for at least 2 years after surgery.


Twenty-six consecutive patients underwent selective subtemporal amygdalohippocampectomy for nonlesional, medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuropsychological evaluation using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was done before surgery in all patients, 2 months after surgery in 24 patients, and at 2-year follow up in 19 patients. A verbal paired associates learning test was administered before surgery and 2 months after surgery in 19 patients. The data were compared between the 13 patients in whom the language-dominant hemisphere was surgically treated and the six patients in whom the language-nondominant hemisphere was treated.

After surgery, 84% of the patients attained either Engel Class I or II seizure outcome. There were no permanent subjective complications except postoperative memory impairment in one patient. Neuropathological examination confirmed hippocampal sclerosis in 19 patients. No significant differences in IQ and verbal memory test scores were observed between the patients in whom the language-dominant hemisphere was treated and those in whom the language-nondominant hemisphere was treated. Significant postoperative increases in verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full-scale IQ were observed over time. No significant differences were found between pre- and postoperative verbal memory test scores, and no subjective visual field loss was marked in any patient.


Subtemporal selective amygdalohippocampectomy provides favorable surgical and neuropsychological outcomes and does not cause significant postoperative decline of verbal memory if performed on the language-dominant side.

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Masahiro Izawa, Motohiro Hayashi, Kohtarou Nakaya, Hiroyuki Satoh, Taku Ochiai, Tomokatsu Hori, and Kintomo Takakura

Object. The purpose of this study was the analysis of a large series of patients treated with gamma knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenoma in a single institution.

Methods. One hundred eight patients with pituitary adenomas were treated over the last 7 years. Seventy-four patients have been followed for more than 6 months and form the basis of this report.

Conclusions. Twenty-three patients harbored nonfunctioning adenomas, and 56 harbored functioning adenomas. The mean margin dose was 22.5 Gy (nonfunctioning adenomas, 19.5 Gy; functioning adenomas, 23.8 Gy). Control of tumor growth was achieved in 91%. A significant decrease of excessive hormone production was seen in 80% of patients, and the endocrinological normalization rate was 30.3%. Postradiosurgical complications were seen in 2.5%.

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Masahiro Izawa, Motohiro Hayashi, Mikhail Chernov, Koutarou Nakaya, Taku Ochiai, Noriko Murata, Yuichi Takasu, Osami Kubo, Tomokatsu Hori, and Kintomo Takakura

Object. The authors analyzed of the long-term complications that occur 2 or more years after gamma knife surgery (GKS) for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

Methods. Patients with previously untreated intracranial AVMs that were managed by GKS and followed for at least 2 years after treatment were selected for analysis (237 cases). Complete AVM obliteration was attained in 130 cases (54.9%), and incomplete obliteration in 107 cases (45.1%). Long-term complications were observed in 22 patients (9.3%). These complications included hemorrhage (eight cases), delayed cyst formation (eight cases), increase of seizure frequency (four cases), and middle cerebral artery stenosis and increased white matter signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (one case of each). The long-term complications were associated with larger nidus volume (p < 0.001) and a lobar location of the AVM (p < 0.01). Delayed hemorrhage was associated only with incomplete obliteration of the nidus (p < 0.05). Partial obliteration conveyed no benefit. Delayed cyst formation was associated with a higher maximal GKS dose (p < 0.001), larger nidus volume (p < 0.001), complete nidus obliteration (p < 0.01), and a lobar location of the AVM (p < 0.05).

Conclusions. Incomplete obliteration of the nidus is the most important factor associated with delayed hemorrhagic complications. Partial obliteration does not seem to reduce the risk of hemorrhage. Complete obliteration can be complicated by delayed cyst formation, especially if high maximal treatment doses have been administered.

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Motohiro Hayashi, Takaomi Taira, Taku Ochiai, Mikhail Chernov, Yuichi Takasu, Masahiro Izawa, Nobuo Kouyama, Mihoko Tomida, Osamu Tokumaru, Yoko Katayama, Yoriko Kawakami, Tomokatsu Hori, and Kintomo Takakura

Object. Although reports in the literature indicate that thalamic pain syndrome can be controlled with chemical hypophysectomy, this procedure is associated with transient diabetes insipidus. It was considered reasonable to attempt gamma knife surgery (GKS) to the pituitary gland to control thalamic pain.

Methods. Inclusion criteria in this study were poststroke thalamic pain, failure of all other treatments, intolerance to general anesthetic, and the main complaint of pain and not numbness. Seventeen patients met these criteria and were treated with GKS to the pituitary. The target was the pituitary gland together with the border between the pituitary stalk and the gland. The maximum dose was 140 to 180 Gy. All patients were followed for more than 3 months.

Conclusions. An initial significant pain reduction was observed in 13 (76.5%) of 17 patients. Some patients experienced pain reduction within 48 hours of treatment. Persistent pain relief for more than 1 year was observed in five (38.5%) of 13 patients. Rapid recurrence of pain in fewer than 3 months was observed in four (30.8%) of 13 patients. The only complication was transient diabetes insipidus in one patient. It would seem that GKS of the pituitary might have a role to play in thalamic pain arising after a stroke.

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Motohiro Hayashi, Taku Ochiai, Kotaro Nakaya, Mikhail Chernov, Noriko Tamura, Takashi Maruyama, Shoji Yomo, Masahiro Izawa, Tomokatsu Hori, Kintomo Takakura, and Jean Regis


Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) is becoming a standard treatment for vestibular schwannoma (VS); it is ranked with microsurgery from the perspective of tumor control and audiofacial nerve function preservation. A new treatment technique that will improve the tumor shrinkage ratio, shorten the patient's recovery time, and even recover some cranial nerve function is described.


Along with advances in the GKS system, the authors have developed magnetic resonance imaging sequences specific to particular treatments. These newly developed sequences provide much clearer visualization of the distribution of the cranial nerves, especially in the area from the cisterns to the internal acoustic meatus. Magnetic resonance images have been fused with computed tomography scans to facilitate better delineation of the anatomical relationships. These dose-planning images allow for a higher isodose line (80%) inside the tumor. The aim is to shrink the tumor and not just to control it. To date 130 patients have been treated with GKS in conjunction with this new technique. Of the 130, 91 patients were observed for more than 12 months. The tumor shrinkage rate was 65.9% (76% for patients with > 24 months of follow up), the facial nerve preservation rate was 98.9%, the hearing preservation rate was 92.3%, and four (4%) of 91 patients recovered hearing function. Transient tumor enlargement was observed in most cases, but no severe complications were found.


Although these results are preliminary, they would appear to represent a potential breakthrough in the treatment of VS. Longer follow-up periods and additional cases will firmly establish this method as an absolute treatment option for patients with a VS.

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Motohiro Hayashi, Taku Ochiai, Kotaro Nakaya, Mikhail Chernov, Noriko Tamura, Shoji Yomo, Masahiro Izawa, Tomokatsu Hori, Kintomo Takakura, and Jean Regis

✓Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) is image-guided surgery for brain tumors. Precise tumor visualization is needed in dose planning to control tumor progression. The surrounding vital structures must also be clearly defined to allow the preservation of their function. A special magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence was chosen for use with GKS to treat skull base and suprasellar tumors.

Gadolinium-enhanced 0.5-mm constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) slices were obtained in skull base and suprasellar tumors. Each structure that was adjacent to the tumor could be visualized more clearly by using this imaging technique because the tumor became transparent even though there was no change in the appearance of the surrounding structures after injection of Gd. Use of this technique in acoustic tumors allowed the seventh and eighth cranial nerves to be visualized in the cisternal and intrameatal portions; both of which were distinguishable from the tumor. Suprasellar tumor could be distinguished from the adjacent optic pathway. The use of Gd-enhanced CISS imaging allowed for optimal dose planning with very high conformity in every tumor. Achieving this high conformity allowed the preservation of adjacent structures and their functions.

Establishing optimal dose planning in brain tumors is very important to overcome the problem of producing new neurological deficits in patients who may already be suffering disease-related deficits. The use of this special CISS MR imaging sequence may help accomplish this goal.

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Motohiro Hayashi, Mikhail Chernov, Noriko Tamura, Shoji Yomo, Taku Ochiai, Mariko Nagai, Manabu Tamura, Masahiro Izawa, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Hiroshi Iseki, Yoshikazu Okada, and Kintomo Takakura

Abducent nerve schwannomas are extremely rare. The authors recently performed Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in 4 patients with such tumors and describe their experiences with these cases.

The patients consisted of 3 women and 1 man whose ages varied from 31 to 60 years (mean 46 years). Two patients had no symptoms, 1 complained of slight visual disturbances, and the other 1 had abducent nerve palsy. Neurofibromatosis was not diagnosed in any case. All 4 tumors were located in the cavernous sinus: 2 of these tumors within the borders of the sinus, 1 tumor extending into the orbit, and 1 tumor extending into the prepontine cistern. The volume of the neoplasms varied from 1.7 to 4.9 cm3 (mean 3.0 cm3). No patient underwent tumor resection. Treatment was delivered with the aid of a Leksell Gamma Knife model C unit and the automatic positioning system. The dose directed to the tumor margin was 12 Gy in all cases. The dose directed to the anterior visual pathways was kept below 10 Gy and that to the brainstem below 14 Gy. The length of follow-up varied between 7 and 43 months (mean 27 months).

There were no acute complications or side effects. Imaging studies showed temporary enlargement of all tumors during the 1st posttreatment year, but thereafter, there was a trend toward reduction in volume. None of the neoplasms displayed regrowth. In the 3 patients who did not have abducent nerve palsy before GKS, it appeared, at least temporarily, after the procedure. Purely intracavernous neoplasms in general followed uneventful posttreatment courses, but dumbbell-shaped tumors were associated with significant morbidity. The cisternocavernous schwannoma underwent cystic degeneration 2 years after GKS, and the patient developed diplopia. After GKS, the patient treated for an orbitocavernous schwannoma experienced a significant deterioration in vision, temporary blindness in 1 eye, and late development of permanent abducent nerve palsy, which were seemingly caused by compression of neurovascular structures within the anulus of Zinn during a temporary increase in the lesion's volume after irradiation.

Gamma Knife surgery controls the growth of abducent nerve schwannomas and may be effectively used to manage intracavernous neoplasms. Caution, however, should be used in cases of dumbbell-shaped tumors, particularly those extending through the superior orbital fissure.