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Kensuke Kawai, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Akira Yagishita, Taketoshi Maehara, and Kimiko Tamagawa

Object. Epilepsy in patients with bihemispheric malformations of cortical development (MCD) is typically medically intractable. Focal resection has been reported to be ineffective. Corpus callosotomy has been advocated as a treatment option, but the results have been reported only in several case reports. The authors describe a series of 10 patients with bihemispheric MCDs who underwent total corpus callosotomy.

Methods. The MCDs in these patients included lissencephaly, band heterotopia, perisylvian polymicrogyria, and tuberous sclerosis. Preoperatively all patients suffered disabling drop attacks or intense head drop seizures that caused frequent physical injuries. The follow-up period ranged from 1.4 to 5.8 years (median 3.2 years). Seizure outcome, parental assessment of daily function, and parental satisfaction with outcome were assessed postoperatively. Drop attacks disappeared completely during the entire follow-up period in eight patients and decreased to less than 10% of baseline in one. Other types of seizures were resolved completely in one patient and decreased in seven. Overall daily function improved and parents were satisfied with the surgery-related results in all patients except one who experienced a recurrence of drop attacks. There were no signs of significant and persistent neurological deficits in any case.

Conclusions. Results of total corpus callosotomy in patients with bihemispheric MCDs were favorable in most cases. The procedure was particularly effective against drop attacks causing physical injuries and impaired quality of life in these patients.

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Shoko Hara, Maki Mukawa, Hiroyuki Akagawa, Thiparpa Thamamongood, Motoki Inaji, Yoji Tanaka, Taketoshi Maehara, Hidetoshi Kasuya, and Tadashi Nariai

OBJECTIVE

The authors’ objective was to investigate the influence of the RNF213 p.R4810K variant on the clinical presentation and outcomes of Japanese pediatric patients with moyamoya disease.

METHODS

A total of 129 Japanese patients with pediatric-onset moyamoya disease (onset age ≤ 15 years) who visited the authors’ department from 2012 to 2020 participated in this study. After RNF213 p.R4810K genotyping of each patient was performed, the relationship between genotype and clinical presentation or outcomes, including onset age, initial presentation, surgical outcomes, and subsequent cerebrovascular events, was evaluated. Patients without the p.R4810K variant were tested for RNF213 variants other than p.R4810K. The authors especially focused on the results of patients who presented with moyamoya disease at younger than 1 year of age (infantile onset).

RESULTS

Compared with the patients with heterozygous variants, patients without the p.R4810K variant were younger at onset (7.1 ± 3.7 vs 4.4 ± 0.9 years), and all 4 patients with infantile onset lacked the p.R4810K variant. A greater proportion of patients without the p.R4810K variant presented with infarction than patients with the heterozygous variant (24.0% vs 7.6%) and a decreased proportion presented with transient ischemic attack (36.0% vs 71.7%). No significant correlation was observed between p.R4810K genotype and clinical outcomes, including surgical outcomes and subsequent cerebrovascular events; however, a decreased proportion of patients without the p.R4810K variant had good surgical outcomes compared with that of patients with the heterozygous variant (76.5% vs 92.2%). Among the 25 patients without the p.R4810K variant, 8 rare variants other than p.R4810K were identified. Three of 4 patients with infantile onset had RNF213 variants other than p.R4810K, which had a more severe functional effect on this gene than p.R4810K.

CONCLUSIONS

Absence of the RNF213 p.R4810K variant may be a novel biomarker for identification of a severe form of pediatric moyamoya disease.

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Maki Mukawa, Tadashi Nariai, Yoshiharu Matsushima, Yoji Tanaka, Motoki Inaji, Taketoshi Maehara, Masaru Aoyagi, and Kikuo Ohno

Object

Surgical revascularization is considered an effective treatment for juvenile patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). Yet the long-term outcome in surgically treated patients still needs to be clarified. More than 30 years have passed since the authors' department started intensively treating pediatric patients with MMD using indirect anastomosis techniques. In this study the authors surveyed the current status of these patients.

Methods

Activities of daily living (ADLs) were surveyed and present clinical status was assessed based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Cerebrovascular events subsequent to surgical treatment were also recorded.

Results

Since 1979, 208 patients younger than 19 years of age with MMD were surgically treated and followed up for > 3 years. Data were available on 172 patients (83%), who had been followed up for a mean of 14.3 years (range 3–32 years). Activity of daily living outcomes were as follows: 138 patients (80.2%) had mRS scores of 0–2, 29 (16.9%) a score of 3, 1 (0.6%) a score of 4, 1 (0.6%) a score of 5, and 3 (1.7%) a score of 6. Cerebrovascular events occurred 8 or more years after surgery in 6 patients (3.4%), that is, 6 hemorrhages and 3 infarctions. The cumulative risk of late-onset stroke at 10, 20, and 30 years after surgical intervention was 0.8%, 6.3%, and 10.0%, respectively.

Conclusions

This long-term survey demonstrated that most surgically treated pediatric patients with MMD maintain good ADL outcomes. However, a significant number of new cerebrovascular events occurred more than 10 years after the initial surgery. Additional follow-up will help to identify which events may occur during the adult years of patients treated as children.

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Maki Mukawa, Tadashi Nariai, Motoki Inaji, Natsumi Tamada, Taketoshi Maehara, Yoshiharu Matsushima, Kikuo Ohno, Mariko Negi, and Daisuke Kobayashi

The object of this study was to analyze the pathology of collateral vessels newly induced by indirect bypass surgery for moyamoya disease (MMD). An autopsy analysis was conducted on a 39-year-old woman with MMD who had died of a brainstem infarction. The patient had undergone bilateral indirect bypass surgeries 22 years earlier. Sufficient revascularization via bilateral external carotid arterial systems was confirmed by cerebral angiography before her death. Macroscopic observation of the operative areas revealed countless meandering vessels on the internal surface of the dura mater connected with small vessels on the brain surface and in the subpial brain tissue. Notably, microscopic analysis of these vessels revealed the characteristic 3-layer structure of an arterial wall. This autopsy analysis was the first to confirm that indirect bypass surgery had induced the formation of a new arterial network (arteriogenesis) and that this network had been maintained for more than 20 years to compensate for the chronic cerebral ischemia caused by the MMD.

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Takashi Sugawara, Masaru Aoyagi, Takahiro Ogishima, Yoshihisa Kawano, Masashi Tamaki, Tomoyuki Yano, Atsunobu Tsunoda, Kikuo Ohno, Taketoshi Maehara, and Seiji Kishimoto

OBJECT

The majority of sinonasal malignancies present with advanced disease, and cure rates are generally poor. Surgical extirpation remains the mainstay of treatment. In cases of sinonasal malignancy with orbital apex extension, gross-total tumor resection requires orbital exenteration and bony skull base resection around the orbital apex to provide sufficient margins. In this retrospective study, the authors describe their surgical strategy in and technique for orbital exenteration with orbital apex resection in patients at Tokyo Medical and Dental University who had sinonasal malignancy with orbital apex extension. They also analyzed the clinical features of and the results in these patients.

METHODS

Between February 2001 and August 2012 at the authors' institution, sinonasal malignancy with orbital apex extension was treated using craniofacial tumor resection with orbital exenteration including skull base bone around the orbital apex. The authors describe this technique and analyze the surgical indications, extent of resection, primary tumor location, outcome, pathological findings, and neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies of the patients who underwent the technique.

RESULTS

The patients consisted of 12 men and 3 women with a mean age of 47.7 years (range 14–79 years). The longest postoperative follow-up was 9.5 years, and the shortest was 0.67 year (mean 3.0 years). Tumor originated at the ethmoid sinus in 6 patients (40%), maxillary sinus in 5 (33%), nasal cavity in 2 (13%), and orbital cavity and maxillary bone in 1 patient each (7%). Histological analysis of tumor specimens revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 9 patients (60%), rhabdomyosarcoma in 2 (13%), and small cell carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and Ewing sarcoma in 1 patient each (7%). Two patients experienced recurrences at 1 and 5 months after treatment; these patients died at 5 and 10 months after surgery, respectively. Estimated 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 86.7%, and estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) was 86.2%; there was no perioperative mortality. None of the patients had new neurological deficits as a result of the surgery, but 5 patients suffered infectious complications from the graft transplanted into the cavity after resection. There were no other perioperative complications.

CONCLUSIONS

These authors are the first to describe a technique for extended orbital exenteration with orbital apex skull base resection. The technique provided sufficient margins for gross-total resection of the sinonasal malignancy with orbital apex extension. The estimated 5-year OS and RFS rates were high, and the perioperative complication rate was acceptably low, demonstrating the safety and efficacy of this technique.

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Yoji Tanaka, Tadashi Nariai, Toshiya Momose, Masaru Aoyagi, Taketoshi Maehara, Toshiki Tomori, Yoshikazu Yoshino, Tsukasa Nagaoka, Kiichi Ishiwata, Kenji Ishii, and Kikuo Ohno

Object

A multimodal neuronavigation system using metabolic images with PET and anatomical images from MR images is described here for glioma surgery. The efficacy of the multimodal neuronavigation system was evaluated by comparing the results with that of the conventional navigation system, which routinely uses anatomical images from MR and CT imaging as guides.

Methods

Thirty-three patients with cerebral glioma underwent 36 operations with the aid of either a multimodal or conventional navigation system. All of the patients were preliminarily examined using PET with l-methyl-[C] methionine (MET) for surgical planning. Seventeen of the operations were performed with the multimodal navigation system by integrating the MET-PET images with anatomical MR images. The other 19 operations were performed using a conventional navigation system based solely on MR imaging.

Results

The multimodal navigation system proved to be more useful than the conventional navigation system in determining the area to be resected by providing a clearer tumor boundary, especially in cases of recurrent tumor that had lost a normal gyral pattern. The multimodal navigation system was therefore more effective than the conventional navigation system in decreasing the mass of the tumor remnant in the resectable portion. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that the multimodal navigation system–guided surgery benefited patient survival significantly more than the conventional navigation–guided surgery (p = 0.016, odds ratio 0.52 [95% confidence interval 0.29–0.88]).

Conclusions

The authors' preliminary intrainstitutional comparison between the 2 navigation systems suggested the possible premise of multimodal navigation. The multimodal navigation system using MET-PET fusion imaging is an interesting technique that may prove to be valuable in the future.