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Hiroyuki Kurihara, Koji Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Takayuki Funatsu, Go Matsuoka, Yoshihiro Omura, Yoshikazu Okada, and Takakazu Kawamata

Surgical treatments for moyamoya disease (MMD) include direct revascularization procedures with proven efficacy, for example, superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass, STA to anterior cerebral artery bypass, occipital artery (OA) to MCA bypass, or OA to posterior cerebral artery bypass. In cases with poor development of the parietal branch of the STA, the posterior auricular artery (PAA) is often developed and can be used as the bypass donor artery. In this report, the authors describe double direct bypass performed using only the PAA as the donor in the initial surgery for MMD.

In the authors’ institution, MMD is routinely treated with an STA-MCA double bypass. Some patients, however, have poor STA development, and in these cases the PAA is used as the donor artery. The authors report the use of the PAA in the treatment of 4 MMD patients at their institution from 2013 to 2016. In all 4 cases, a double direct bypass was performed, with transposition of the PAA as the donor artery. Good patency was confirmed in all cases via intraoperative indocyanine green angiography and postoperative MRA or cerebral angiography. The mean blood flow measurement during surgery was 58 ml/min. No patients suffered a stroke after revascularization surgery.

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Akikazu Nakamura, Akitsugu Kawashima, Hugo Andrade-Barazarte, Takayuki Funatsu, Juha Hernesniemi, and Takakazu Kawamata

OBJECTIVE

Patients with pediatric moyamoya disease (PMMD) showing recurrent symptoms or decreased cerebral blood flow after initial revascularization therapy may require additional revascularization to improve their clinical condition. The authors evaluated the clinical and hemodynamic benefits of an occipital artery (OA)–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass for patients with PMMD who have undergone an initial revascularization procedure.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively identified 9 patients with PMMD who had undergone OA-MCA bypass between March 2013 and December 2017, and who had received a previous superficial temporal artery–MCA bypass. The following clinical data were collected: initial revascularization procedure, symptoms (presence or recurrence), pre- and postoperative cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) changes, posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stenosis, PCA-related and nonrelated symptoms, and latest follow-up.

RESULTS

Preoperatively, all patients (n = 9) suffered non–PCA-related recurrent symptoms, and 4 had PCA-related symptoms. At 1-year follow-up, all patients with PCA-related symptoms showed complete recovery. Additionally, 8 (89%) patients with non-PCA symptoms experienced improvement. Only 1 (11%) patient showed no improvement after the surgical procedure. The mean pre- and postoperative CVR values of the MCA territory were 14.8% and 31.3%, respectively, whereas the respective mean CVR values of the PCA territory were 22.8% and 40.0%.

CONCLUSIONS

The OA-MCA bypass is an effective rescue therapy to improve the clinical condition and hemodynamic changes caused by PMMD in patients who experience recurrent symptoms after initial revascularization.

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Akikazu Nakamura, Akitsugu Kawashima, Hugo Andrade-Barazarte, Takayuki Funatsu, Juha Hernesniemi, and Takakazu Kawamata

OBJECTIVE

Patients with pediatric moyamoya disease (PMMD) showing recurrent symptoms or decreased cerebral blood flow after initial revascularization therapy may require additional revascularization to improve their clinical condition. The authors evaluated the clinical and hemodynamic benefits of an occipital artery (OA)–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass for patients with PMMD who have undergone an initial revascularization procedure.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively identified 9 patients with PMMD who had undergone OA-MCA bypass between March 2013 and December 2017, and who had received a previous superficial temporal artery–MCA bypass. The following clinical data were collected: initial revascularization procedure, symptoms (presence or recurrence), pre- and postoperative cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) changes, posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stenosis, PCA-related and nonrelated symptoms, and latest follow-up.

RESULTS

Preoperatively, all patients (n = 9) suffered non–PCA-related recurrent symptoms, and 4 had PCA-related symptoms. At 1-year follow-up, all patients with PCA-related symptoms showed complete recovery. Additionally, 8 (89%) patients with non-PCA symptoms experienced improvement. Only 1 (11%) patient showed no improvement after the surgical procedure. The mean pre- and postoperative CVR values of the MCA territory were 14.8% and 31.3%, respectively, whereas the respective mean CVR values of the PCA territory were 22.8% and 40.0%.

CONCLUSIONS

The OA-MCA bypass is an effective rescue therapy to improve the clinical condition and hemodynamic changes caused by PMMD in patients who experience recurrent symptoms after initial revascularization.

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Shoichi Tani, Hirotoshi Imamura, Katsunori Asai, Kampei Shimizu, Hidemitsu Adachi, So Tokunaga, Takayuki Funatsu, Keita Suzuki, Hiromasa Adachi, Shuhei Kawabata, Yuichi Matsui, Natsuhi Sasaki, Ryo Akiyama, Kazufumi Horiuchi, Chiaki Sakai, and Nobuyuki Sakai

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to compare methods of measurement for venous phase delay (VPD) or mean stump pressure (MSTP) to rank their potential to predict ischemic tolerance during balloon test occlusion in the internal carotid artery, exploring a more correlative and convenient way to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) that could be utilized even in the acute phase or in institutions not adequately equipped to measure CBF during the test.

METHODS

X-ray angiography perfusion analysis using diagnostic digital subtraction angiography (DSA) equipment enables 1-step examination (without any room-to-room transfer of patients) to measure CBF, VPD, and MSTP completely simultaneously, which has not been accomplished by any previous perfusion studies.

RESULTS

This analysis was applied to 17 patients and resulted in successful estimation of all 3 parameters in each case. The average VPD of several cortical veins had a strong correlation with relative CBF (rCBF) between bilateral hemispheres with a correlation coefficient of 0.89443, a correlation as strong as that (0.90357) of the “approximate VPD,” which is interpreted based on the trend line of the scatterplot of the time to peak contrast opacification in cortical veins and their spatial positioning from the median sagittal plane. MSTP and classic visual determination of VPD have weaker correlation coefficients with rCBF (0.56119 and 0.70048, respectively). Overall, subjective visual determination in combination with the calculation of the trend line to estimate VPD provided a considerably strong correlation with rCBF (R = 0.86660) without any dedicated software or hardware.

CONCLUSIONS

VPD has a stronger correlation with rCBF than MSTP. rCBF could be successfully predicted on common DSA equipment, even by visual determination without expensive software, if the trend line is adopted for processing to estimate VPD.