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  • Author or Editor: Takayuki Funatsu x
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Hiroyuki Kurihara, Koji Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Takayuki Funatsu, Go Matsuoka, Yoshihiro Omura, Yoshikazu Okada and Takakazu Kawamata

Surgical treatments for moyamoya disease (MMD) include direct revascularization procedures with proven efficacy, for example, superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass, STA to anterior cerebral artery bypass, occipital artery (OA) to MCA bypass, or OA to posterior cerebral artery bypass. In cases with poor development of the parietal branch of the STA, the posterior auricular artery (PAA) is often developed and can be used as the bypass donor artery. In this report, the authors describe double direct bypass performed using only the PAA as the donor in the initial surgery for MMD.

In the authors’ institution, MMD is routinely treated with an STA-MCA double bypass. Some patients, however, have poor STA development, and in these cases the PAA is used as the donor artery. The authors report the use of the PAA in the treatment of 4 MMD patients at their institution from 2013 to 2016. In all 4 cases, a double direct bypass was performed, with transposition of the PAA as the donor artery. Good patency was confirmed in all cases via intraoperative indocyanine green angiography and postoperative MRA or cerebral angiography. The mean blood flow measurement during surgery was 58 ml/min. No patients suffered a stroke after revascularization surgery.

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Shoichi Tani, Hirotoshi Imamura, Katsunori Asai, Kampei Shimizu, Hidemitsu Adachi, So Tokunaga, Takayuki Funatsu, Keita Suzuki, Hiromasa Adachi, Shuhei Kawabata, Yuichi Matsui, Natsuhi Sasaki, Ryo Akiyama, Kazufumi Horiuchi, Chiaki Sakai and Nobuyuki Sakai


The authors sought to compare methods of measurement for venous phase delay (VPD) or mean stump pressure (MSTP) to rank their potential to predict ischemic tolerance during balloon test occlusion in the internal carotid artery, exploring a more correlative and convenient way to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) that could be utilized even in the acute phase or in institutions not adequately equipped to measure CBF during the test.


X-ray angiography perfusion analysis using diagnostic digital subtraction angiography (DSA) equipment enables 1-step examination (without any room-to-room transfer of patients) to measure CBF, VPD, and MSTP completely simultaneously, which has not been accomplished by any previous perfusion studies.


This analysis was applied to 17 patients and resulted in successful estimation of all 3 parameters in each case. The average VPD of several cortical veins had a strong correlation with relative CBF (rCBF) between bilateral hemispheres with a correlation coefficient of 0.89443, a correlation as strong as that (0.90357) of the “approximate VPD,” which is interpreted based on the trend line of the scatterplot of the time to peak contrast opacification in cortical veins and their spatial positioning from the median sagittal plane. MSTP and classic visual determination of VPD have weaker correlation coefficients with rCBF (0.56119 and 0.70048, respectively). Overall, subjective visual determination in combination with the calculation of the trend line to estimate VPD provided a considerably strong correlation with rCBF (R = 0.86660) without any dedicated software or hardware.


VPD has a stronger correlation with rCBF than MSTP. rCBF could be successfully predicted on common DSA equipment, even by visual determination without expensive software, if the trend line is adopted for processing to estimate VPD.