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Takashi Shuto, Makoto Ohtake and Shigeo Matsunaga

Object

The authors retrospectively studied the mechanism of cyst formation and enlargement after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

Methods

Eighteen patients in whom cyst formation developed following GKS for AVM were retrospectively identified among 775 patients who underwent GKS for AVM at Yokohama Rosai Hospital. The study group was composed of 12 male and 6 female patients ranging in age from 17 to 47 years.

Results

Chronic encapsulated expanding hematoma was associated with the cyst in 5 patients. The AVM nidus volume at the time of GKS ranged from 1.9 to 36 cm3, and the prescription radiation dose was 18–25 Gy. Complete obliteration of the AVM nidus was obtained in 13 patients and partial obliteration in 5 patients. Cyst formation was detected between 2.6 and 15 years after GKS. Craniotomy was performed in 10 patients, including 2 patients in whom the incompletely obliterated nidus was removed at the same time, and an Ommaya reservoir was placed in 2 patients. Spontaneous regression of the cyst was observed in 1 patient. Serial MR imaging was performed in the other patients because the size of the cyst was stable or the lesion was asymptomatic. Histological examination of the cyst wall revealed linear hemosiderin deposits with gliosis. The nodular lesion, which was enhanced on MR images, contained granulation tissue with chronic hemorrhage from newly developed capillary vessels.

Conclusions

Cysts developing after GKS for AVM enlarge mainly due to repeated minor hemorrhages from a reddish nodular angiomatous lesion that develops within an adjacent brain area. Thus, the optimal treatment is wide opening of the cyst with removal of the associated angiomatous lesion by craniotomy.

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Takashi Shuto, Shigeo Inomori, Hideyo Fujino and Hisato Nagano

Object

The authors evaluated the results of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for the treatment of metastatic brain tumors from renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in 69 patients with metastatic brain tumors from RCC who underwent GKS at the authors’ institution. Fifty-one patients were men, and 18 were women. The mean patient age was 64.2 years (range 45–85 years).

The 69 patients underwent a total of 104 GKS procedures for treatment of 314 tumors. Eighteen patients received repeated GKS. Follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used at a mean of 7.1 months after GKS to evaluate the change in 132 tumors after treatment. The mean prescription dose at the tumor margin was 21.8 Gy. The tumor growth control rate was 82.6%. Tumor volume and the delivered peripheral dose were significantly correlated with tumor growth control on univariate and multivariate analyses. Sixty (45.5%) of the 132 tumors assessed with MR imaging were associated with apparent peritumoral edema at the time of GKS. After treatment, peritumoral edema disappeared in 27 tumors, decreased in 13, was unchanged in 16, and progressed in four. Newly developed peritumoral edema after GKS was rare. The delivered peripheral dose was significantly correlated with control of peritumoral edema. The overall median survival time after GKS was 9.5 months. In this study, 34 patients died of systemic disease and 10 died of progressive brain metastases. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of lesions at the first GKS, the Karnofsky Performance Scale score at the first GKS, the recursive partitioning analysis classification, and the interval from diagnosis of RCC to brain metastasis were significantly correlated with survival time.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery is effective for metastatic brain tumors from RCC. The disappearance rate of tumors is relatively low, but growth control is high. The delivered dose to the tumor margin is significantly correlated with the control of peritumoral edema. Gamma Knife surgery should be used as the initial treatment modality, if possible, even in patients with multiple metastases. Repeated GKS is recommended for newly developed brain metastases because of the low sensitivity of RCC to conventional radiation therapy.

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Yuji Yamanaka, Takashi Shuto, Yoriko Kato, Tomu Okada, Shigeo Inomori, Hideyo Fujino and Hisato Nagano

Object

The combination approach of Ommaya reservoir placement and Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) was evaluated for the treatment of large cystic metastatic brain tumors.

Methods

The medical records of 22 patients harboring 28 tumors, who underwent Ommaya reservoir placement followed by GKS for large cystic metastatic brain tumors were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' ages ranged 26 to 77 years (mean 57.1 years). The most common locations of primary malignancy were the breast (11 patients) followed by the lung (seven patients). The mean maximum diameter of the tumor was 40.1 mm before Ommaya reservoir placement and 31.2 mm at GKS (mean reduction of 19.9%). The mean calculated tumor volume at GKS was 13.4 cm3. The mean tumor margin dose was 16 Gy in 17 patients treated by GKS only and 11 Gy in five patients treated using both GKS and external radiotherapy. The mean follow-up period was 11.5 months. Nineteen (67.9%) of the 28 tumors were controlled. The median patient survival time was 7 months. Asymptomatic intracystic hemorrhage associated with Ommaya reservoir placement was seen in two patients with four tumors, but no serious complication occurred.

Conclusions

Ommaya reservoir placement followed by GKS is relatively effective and safe for large cystic metastatic brain tumors. Gamma Knife surgery should be performed within a few days of Ommaya reservoir placement. Reaccumulation and high viscosity of cystic content must be considered.

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Takashi Shuto, Shigeo Inomori, Hideyo Fujino, Hisato Nagano, Naoki Hasegawa and Yukio Kakuta

Object. The authors conducted a study to evaluate the clinical significance of cyst formation or enlargement after gamma knife surgery (GKS) for intracranial benign meningiomas.

Methods. The medical records of 160 patients with 184 tumors were examined for those with follow-up data of more than 2 years among 270 patients who underwent GKS for intracranial meningiomas between February 1992 and November 2001.

Cyst formation or enlargement following GKS was observed in five patients, one man and four women (mean age 61.2 years). The tumor location was the sphenoid ridge in one case, petroclival in two, tentorium in one, and parasagittal region in one. All patients underwent surgery before GKS. The mean tumor volume was 10.5 cm3, the mean margin dose was 13.4 Gy (median 14 Gy), and the mean maximum dose was 27.5 Gy (median 24.1 Gy). At the time of GKS three tumors were associated with cyst, of which two enlarged after radiosurgery. Three cysts developed de novo after GKS. Three of the five patients needed surgery to treat the cyst formation or enlargement. Histological examination demonstrated various findings such as tumor necrosis, proliferation of small vessels, vascular obliteration, and hemosiderin deposits.

Conclusions. New cyst formation following GKS for benign intracranial meningioma is relatively rare; however, both preexisting and newly developed cysts tend to enlarge after GKS and often require surgery.

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Shigeo Matsunaga, Takashi Shuto, Nobutaka Kawahara, Jun Suenaga, Shigeo Inomori and Hideyo Fujino

Object

The goal of this study was to analyze prognostic factors for local tumor control and survival and indications for initial treatment with the Gamma Knife in patients with up to 10 metastatic brain tumors from primary breast cancer.

Methods

Outcomes were retrospectively reviewed in 101 women with a total of 600 tumors, who underwent Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for metastatic brain tumors between April 1992 and December 2008 at 1 institution. The inclusion criteria were up to 10 brain metastases, maximum diameter of tumor < 3 cm, and total tumor volume < 15 cm3. The exclusion criteria were poor systemic condition, presence of carcinomatous meningitis, and previous whole brain radiation treatment and/or craniotomy.

Results

The mean tumor volume at GKS was 3.7 cm3 (range 0.016–14.3 cm3). The mean margin dose was 19 Gy (range 8–30 Gy). Neuroimaging showed that the local tumor growth control rate was 97%, and the tumor response rate was 82.3%. Larger tumor volume (p = 0.001) and lower margin dose (p = 0.001) were significant adverse prognostic factors for local tumor growth control according to a multivariate analysis. The number of brain metastatic lesions was 4 or fewer in 76 patients and 5 or more in 25 patients. The median overall survival time was 13 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of extracranial metastases (p = 0.041) and lesions that were not the human epidermal growth factor receptor–2 (HER2)–positive type (p = 0.001) were significant adverse prognostic factors for overall survival. The number of brain metastases was not statistically significant, except for a single metastasis. The median new lesion–free survival time after initial GKS was 9 months. Five or more lesions at initial GKS (p = 0.007) and younger patient age (p = 0.008) reduced survival significantly. The prevention of neurological death after GKS was 93.9% at 1 year, and a lower Karnofsky Performance Scale score (p = 0.009) was the only unfavorable factor. Median overall survival associated with the HER2-positive phenotype was significantly longer than survival associated with the other phenotypes (luminal and triple-negative). There were no statistically significant differences between the 3 breast cancer phenotypes for the incidence of new brain metastases after initial GKS.

Conclusions

Initial GKS resulted in excellent local tumor control rates, which were associated with prolonged survival and a low risk of neurological death for patients with up to 10 metastatic brain tumors from primary breast cancer. The authors recommend periodic clinical and neuroradiological follow-up examinations after GKS in patients with 5 or more lesions at initial GKS, because they carry a high risk of development of new brain metastases, and in patients with the HER2-positive phenotype, because they tend to have a favorable prognosis in overall survival. Last, the authors recommend additional GKS or whole-brain radiation treatment for salvage treatment if new brain metastases occur.

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Douglas Kondziolka

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Shigeo Matsunaga, Takashi Shuto, Nobutaka Kawahara, Jun Suenaga, Shigeo Inomori and Hideyo Fujino

Object

The outcomes after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) were retrospectively analyzed in patients with brain metastases from radioresistant primary colorectal cancer to evaluate the efficacy of GKS and the prognostic factors for local tumor control and overall survival.

Methods

The authors reviewed the medical records of 152 patients with 616 tumors. The group included 102 men and 50 women aged 35–85 years (mean age 64.4 years), who underwent GKS for metastatic brain tumors from colorectal cancer between April 1992 and September 2008 at Yokohama Rosai Hospital.

Results

The mean prescription dose to the tumor margin was 18.5 Gy (range 8–30 Gy). The mean tumor volume at GKS was 2.0 cm3 (range 0.004–10.0 cm3). The primary tumors were located in the colon in 88 patients and the rectum in 64. The median interval between the diagnosis of primary lesions and the diagnosis of brain metastases was 27 months (range 0–180 months). The median neuroradiological follow-up period after GKS was 3 months (mean 6.4 months, range 1–93 months). The local tumor growth control rate, based on MR imaging, was 91.2%. The significant factors for unfavorable local tumor growth control, based on multivariate analysis, were larger tumor volume (p = 0.001) and lower margin dose (p = 0.016). The median overall survival time was 6 months. Lower Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score (p = 0.026) and the presence of extracranial metastases (p = 0.004) at first GKS were significantly correlated with poor overall survival period in multivariate analysis. The cause of death was systemic disease in 112 patients and neurological disease in 13 patients. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis was significantly correlated with a shorter duration of neurological survival in multivariate analysis (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery is effective for suppression of local tumor growth in patients with brain metastases from radioresistant colorectal primary cancer. Therefore, clinical and radiological screening of intracranial metastases for patients with lower KPS scores and/or the presence of extracranial metastases as well as follow-up examinations after GKS for brain metastases should be performed periodically in patients with colorectal cancer, because the neurological prognosis is improved by initial and repeat GKS for newly diagnosed or recurrent tumors leading to a prolonged high-quality survival period.

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Takashi Shuto, Atsuya Akabane, Masaaki Yamamoto, Toru Serizawa, Yoshinori Higuchi, Yasunori Sato, Jun Kawagishi, Kazuhiro Yamanaka, Hidefumi Jokura, Shoji Yomo, Osamu Nagano and Hidefumi Aoyama

OBJECTIVE

Previous Japanese Leksell Gamma Knife Society studies (JLGK0901) demonstrated the noninferiority of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone as the initial treatment for patients with 5–10 brain metastases (BMs) compared with those with 2–4 BMs in terms of overall survival and most secondary endpoints. The authors studied the aforementioned treatment outcomes in a subset of patients with BMs from non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

METHODS

Patients with initially diagnosed BMs treated with SRS alone were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Major inclusion criteria were the existence of up to 10 tumors with a maximum diameter of less than 3 cm each, a cumulative tumor volume of less than 15 cm3, and no leptomeningeal dissemination in patients with a Karnofsky Performance Scale score of 70% or better.

RESULTS

Among 1194 eligible patients, 784 with NSCLC were categorized into 3 groups: group A (1 tumor, n = 299), group B (2–4 tumors, n = 342), and group C (5–10 tumors, n = 143). The median survival times were 13.9 months in group A, 12.3 months in group B, and 12.8 months in group C. The survival curves of groups B and C were very similar (hazard ratio [HR] 1.037; 95% CI 0.842–1.277; p < 0.0001, noninferiority test). The crude and cumulative incidence rates of neurological death, deterioration of neurological function, newly appearing lesions, and leptomeningeal dissemination did not differ significantly between groups B and C. SRS-induced complications occurred in 145 (12.1%) patients during the median post-SRS period of 9.3 months (IQR 4.1–17.4 months), including 46, 54, 29, 11, and 5 patients with a Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grade 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 complication, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of adverse effects in groups A, B, and C 60 months after SRS were 13.5%, 10.0%, and 12.6%, respectively (group B vs C: HR 1.344; 95% CI 0.768–2.352; p = 0.299). The 60-month post-SRS rates of neurocognitive function preservation were 85.7% or higher, and no significant differences among the 3 groups were found.

CONCLUSIONS

In this subset analysis of patients with NSCLC, the noninferiority of SRS alone for the treatment of 5–10 versus 2–4 BMs was confirmed again in terms of overall survival and secondary endpoints. In particular, the incidence of neither post-SRS complications nor neurocognitive function preservation differed significantly between groups B and C. These findings further strengthen the already-reported noninferiority hypothesis of SRS alone for the treatment of patients with 5–10 BMs.

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Hideyuki Kano, Takashi Shuto, Yoshiyasu Iwai, Jason Sheehan, Masaaki Yamamoto, Heyoung L. McBride, Mitsuya Sato, Toru Serizawa, Shoji Yomo, Akihito Moriki, Yukihiko Kohda, Byron Young, Satoshi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kenai, Christopher Duma, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, David Mathieu, Atsuya Akabane, Osamu Nagano, Douglas Kondziolka and L. Dade Lunsford

OBJECT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of intracranial hemangioblastomas.

METHODS

Six participating centers of the North American Gamma Knife Consortium and 13 Japanese Gamma Knife centers identified 186 patients with 517 hemangioblastomas who underwent SRS. Eighty patients had 335 hemangioblastomas associated with von Hippel–Lindau disease (VHL) and 106 patients had 182 sporadic hemangioblastomas. The median target volume was 0.2 cm3 (median diameter 7 mm) in patients with VHL and 0.7 cm3 (median diameter 11 mm) in those with sporadic hemangioblastoma. The median margin dose was 18 Gy in VHL patients and 15 Gy in those with sporadic hemangioblastomas.

RESULTS

At a median of 5 years (range 0.5–18 years) after treatment, 20 patients had died of intracranial disease progression and 9 patients had died of other causes. The overall survival after SRS was 94% at 3 years, 90% at 5 years, and 74% at 10 years. Factors associated with longer survival included younger age, absence of neurological symptoms, fewer tumors, and higher Karnofsky Performance Status. Thirty-three (41%) of the 80 patients with VHL developed new tumors and 17 (16%) of the106 patients with sporadic hemangioblastoma had recurrences of residual tumor from the original tumor. The 5-year rate of developing a new tumor was 43% for VHL patients, and the 5-year rate of developing a recurrence of residual tumor from the original tumor was 24% for sporadic hemangioblastoma patients. Factors associated with a reduced risk of developing a new tumor or recurrences of residual tumor from the original tumor included younger age, fewer tumors, and sporadic rather than VHL-associated hemangioblastomas. The local tumor control rate for treated tumors was 92% at 3 years, 89% at 5 years, and 79% at 10 years. Factors associated with an improved local tumor control rate included VHL-associated hemangioblastoma, solid tumor, smaller tumor volume, and higher margin dose. Thirteen patients (7%) developed adverse radiation effects (ARE) after SRS, and one of these patients died due to ARE.

CONCLUSIONS

When either sporadic or VHL-associated tumors were observed to grow on serial imaging studies, SRS provided tumor control in 79%–92% of tumors.