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Akira Matsumura, Takashi Namikawa, Minori Kato, Yusuke Hori, Noriaki Hidaka, and Hiroaki Nakamura


The object of this study was to analyze the prevalence of postoperative coronal imbalance (CIB) and related factors in patients with adult lumbar scoliosis.


This was a retrospective single-center study of data from patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) who had undergone corrective surgery performed by a single surgeon between 2009 and 2017. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) age at surgery > 40 years, 2) Cobb angles of the thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curve > 40°, 3) upper instrumented vertebra of T9 or T10, 4) lowest instrumented vertebra of L5 or the pelvis, and 5) minimum 2-year follow-up period. Radiographic parameters were measured before surgery, 2 weeks after surgery, and at the latest follow-up. Curve flexibility was also assessed using side bending radiographs. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the 22-Item Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire (SRS-22) and the SF-36. CIB was considered to have occurred if the C7 plumbline was more than 2.5 cm lateral to the central sacral vertical line (i.e., coronal vertical axis [CVA] > 2.5 cm) at the final follow-up. Parameters between the patients with (CIB group) and without (coronal balance [CB] group) CIB were compared, and factors related to CIB were evaluated.


From among 66 consecutively treated ASD patients, a total of 37 patients (mean age at surgery 66.3 years, average follow-up 63 months) met the study inclusion criteria. CIB was found in 6 patients at the final follow-up (16.2%), and the CVA of all patients in the CIB group shifted to the convex side of the TL/L curve. A comparative analysis between the CB and CIB groups, respectively, at the final follow-up indicated the following factors were related to CIB: lumbosacral (LS) curve, 11.0°/16.5° (p = 0.02); LS correction rate (CR), 61%/47% (p = 0.02); and CR ratio (LS vs TL/L), 0.93/0.67 (p = 0.0002). Regarding clinical outcomes, the satisfaction domain of the SRS-22 (CB 4.4 vs CIB 3.5) showed a significant difference between the CIB and CB groups (p = 0.02), and patients in the CB group tended to score better on the pain domain (CB 4.3 vs CIB 3.7), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.06).


Postoperative CIB negatively impacted patients’ HRQOL. An imbalanced correction ratio between the TL/L and LS curves may cause postoperative CIB. Therefore, adequate correction of the LS curve may prevent postoperative CIB.

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Akira Matsumura, Takashi Namikawa, Minori Kato, Tomonori Ozaki, Yusuke Hori, Noriaki Hidaka, and Hiroaki Nakamura

The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical results of posterior corrective surgery using a multilevel transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with a rod rotation (RR) and to evaluate the segmental corrective effect of a TLIF using CT imaging. The medical records of 15 consecutive patients with degenerative lumbar kyphoscoliosis (DLKS) who had undergone posterior spinal corrective surgery using a multilevel TLIF with an RR technique and who had a minimum follow-up of 2 years were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographic parameters were evaluated using plain radiographs, and segmental correction was evaluated using CT imaging. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the Scoliosis Research Society Patient Questionnaire-22 (SRS-22) and the SF-36.

The mean follow-up period was 46.7 months, and the mean age at the time of surgery was 60.7 years. The mean total SRS-22 score was 2.9 before surgery and significantly improved to 4.0 at the latest follow-up. The physical functioning, role functioning (physical), and social functioning subcategories of the SF-36 were generally improved at the latest follow-up, although the changes in these scores were not statistically significant. The bodily pain, vitality, and mental health subcategories were significantly improved at the latest follow-up (p < 0.05).

Three complications occurred in 3 patients (20%). The Cobb angle of the lumbar curve was reduced to 20.3° after surgery. The overall correction rate was 66.4%. The pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis (preoperative/postoperative = 31.5°/4.3°), pelvic tilt (29.2°/18.9°), and sagittal vertical axis (78.3/27.6 mm) were improved after surgery and remained so throughout the follow-up. Computed tomography image analysis suggested that a 1-level TLIF can result in 10.9° of scoliosis correction and 6.8° of lordosis.

Posterior corrective surgery using a multilevel TLIF with an RR on patients with DLKS can provide effective correction in the coronal plane but allows only limited sagittal correction.

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Akira Matsumura, Takashi Namikawa, Hidetomi Terai, Tadao Tsujio, Akinobu Suzuki, Sho Dozono, Hiroyuki Yasuda, and Hiroaki Nakamura


The authors compared the clinical outcomes of microscopic bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach (MBDU) for the treatment of degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and for lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) without instability. The authors also compared postoperative spinal instability in terms of different approach sides (concave or convex) following the procedure.


The authors retrospectively reviewed data obtained in 50 consecutive patients (25 in the DLS group and 25 in the LCS group) who underwent MBDU; the minimum follow-up period was 2 years. Patients with DLS were divided into 2 subgroups according to the surgical approach side: a concave group (23 segment) and a convex group (17 segments). The Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale scores for the assessment of low-back pain were evaluated before surgery and at final follow-up. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale scores and recovery rates were compared between the DLS and LCS groups, and between the convex and concave groups. Cobb angle and scoliotic wedging angle (SWA) were evaluated on standing radiographs before surgery and at final follow-up. Facet joint preservation (the percentage of preservation) was assessed on pre- and postoperative CT scans, compared between the LCS and DLS groups, and compared between the concave and convex groups. The influence of approach side on postoperative progression of segmental instability was also examined in the DLS group.


The mean recovery rate was 58.7% in the DLS and 62.0% in the LCS group. The mean recovery rate was 58.6% in the convex group and 60.6% in the concave group. There were no significant differences in recovery rates between the LCS and DLS groups, or between the DLS subgroups. The mean Cobb angles in the DLS group were significantly increased from 12.7° preoperatively to 14.1° postoperatively (p < 0.05), and mean preoperative SWAs increased significantly from 6.2° at L3–4 and 4.1° at L4–5 preoperatively to 7.4° and 4.9°, respectively, at final follow-up (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in percentage of preservation between the DLS and LCS groups. The mean percentages of preservation on the approach side in the DLS group at L3–4 and L4–5 were 89.0% and 83.1% in the convex group, and those in the concave group were 67.3% and 77.6%, respectively. The percentage of preservation at L3–4 was significantly higher in the convex than the concave group. The mean SWA had increased in the concave group (p = 0.01) but not the convex group (p = 0.15) at final follow-up.


The MBDU can reduce postoperative segmental spinal instability and achieve good postoperative clinical outcomes in patients with DLS. The convex approach provides surgeons with good visibility and improves preservation of facet joints.

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Masatoshi Hoshino, Hiroaki Nakamura, Sadahiko Konishi, Ryuichi Nagayama, Hidetomi Terai, Tadao Tsujio, Takashi Namikawa, Minori Kato, and Kunio Takaoka

✓ The authors describe a new vertebroplasty technique for the treatment of chronic painful vertebral compression fractures (VCFs).

A urinary balloon catheter is introduced into the vertebral body (VB) via a bilateral transpedicular approach and inflated with contrast medium to obtain sufficient space for endoscopic observation. The granulation tissue occupying the VB is then removed using a punch or curette inserted through one pedicle, with the guidance of an endoscope introduced through the contralateral pedicle. After endoscopic resection of granulation tissue in the fractured VB, vertebroplasty is performed by injecting calcium phosphate cement (CPC) into the VB.

Fourteen patients in whom chronic painful VCFs were diagnosed underwent surgery involving the aforementioned technique. In all cases, intractable pain and ambulatory function improved after surgery, and there were no significant systemic complications. On radiological evaluation in eight cases in which the follow-up period exceeded 1 year, the mean height of the fractured VB improved from 38% of that of adjacent intact VBs to 85%. Although a slight loss of correction was routinely observed at 1 month postoperatively, an additional loss of VB height was not noted up to 1 year later. Bone formation was commonly seen along the anterior wall of the involved vertebrae in all cases.

Vertebroplasty involving the endoscopic removal of granulation tissue proved to be an efficacious procedure for the treatment of chronic painful VCFs. The osteoconductive capacity of CPC facilitated callus formation and ultimately restoration of vertebral bone structure.