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Kenji Uda, Yoshio Araki, Shinsuke Muraoka, Shinji Ota, Kentaro Wada, Kinya Yokoyama, Masahiro Nishihori, Takashi Izumi, Sho Okamoto and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

OBJECTIVE

Transient neurological events (TNEs) occur frequently in the acute phase after direct bypass surgery for moyamoya disease (MMD), but there is currently no way to predict them. FlowInsight is a specialized software for analyzing indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography taken with a surgical microscope. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intraoperative evaluation of local hemodynamic changes around anastomotic sites using FlowInsight could predict the incidence and duration of TNEs.

METHODS

From patients who were diagnosed with MMD in our hospital between August 2014 and March 2017 and who underwent superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass surgery, we investigated 25 hemispheres (in 22 patients) in which intraoperative ICG analysis was performed using FlowInsight. To evaluate the local cerebral hemodynamics before and after anastomosis, regions of interest were set at 3 locations on the brain surface around the anastomotic site, and the mean cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean gradation (Grad), mean transit time (MTT), and mean time to peak (TTP) were calculated from the 3 regions of interest. Furthermore, the change rate in CBF (ΔCBF [%]) was calculated using the formula (postanastomosis mean CBF − preanastomosis mean CBF)/preanastomosis mean CBF. ΔGrad (%), ΔMTT (%), and ΔTTP (%) were similarly calculated.

RESULTS

Postoperative stroke without TNE occurred in 2 of the 25 hemispheres. These 2 hemispheres (in 2 patients) were excluded from the study, and data from the remaining 23 hemispheres (in 20 patients) were analyzed. For each parameter (ΔCBF, ΔGrad, ΔMTT, and ΔTTP) calculated by FlowInsight, the difference between the groups with and without TNEs was significant. The median values for ΔCBF and ΔGrad were significantly higher in the TNE group than in the no-TNE group (ΔCBF 30.13 vs 3.54, p = 0.0106; ΔGrad 62.05 vs 10.78, p = 0.00435), whereas the median values for ΔMTT and ΔTTP were significantly lower in the TNE group (ΔMTT −16.90 vs −7.393, p = 0.023; ΔTTP −29.07 vs −7.02, p = 0.00342). Comparison of the area under the curve (AUC) for each parameter showed that ΔTTP had the highest AUC and was the parameter with the highest diagnostic accuracy (AUC 0.857). The Youden index revealed that the optimal cutoff value of ΔTTP was −11.61 (sensitivity 77.8%, specificity 71.4%) as a predictor of TNEs. In addition, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were calculated, and ΔCBF, ΔGrad, ΔMTT, and ΔTTP each showed a strong correlation with the duration of TNEs. The larger the change in each parameter, the longer the TNEs persisted.

CONCLUSIONS

Intraoperative ICG videoangiography findings were correlated with the occurrence and duration of TNEs after direct bypass surgery for MMD. Screening for cases at high risk of TNEs can be achieved by ICG analysis using FlowInsight.

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Kenji Uda, Yoshio Araki, Shinsuke Muraoka, Shinji Ota, Kentaro Wada, Kinya Yokoyama, Masahiro Nishihori, Takashi Izumi, Sho Okamoto and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

OBJECTIVE

Transient neurological events (TNEs) occur frequently in the acute phase after direct bypass surgery for moyamoya disease (MMD), but there is currently no way to predict them. FlowInsight is a specialized software for analyzing indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography taken with a surgical microscope. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intraoperative evaluation of local hemodynamic changes around anastomotic sites using FlowInsight could predict the incidence and duration of TNEs.

METHODS

From patients who were diagnosed with MMD in our hospital between August 2014 and March 2017 and who underwent superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass surgery, we investigated 25 hemispheres (in 22 patients) in which intraoperative ICG analysis was performed using FlowInsight. To evaluate the local cerebral hemodynamics before and after anastomosis, regions of interest were set at 3 locations on the brain surface around the anastomotic site, and the mean cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean gradation (Grad), mean transit time (MTT), and mean time to peak (TTP) were calculated from the 3 regions of interest. Furthermore, the change rate in CBF (ΔCBF [%]) was calculated using the formula (postanastomosis mean CBF − preanastomosis mean CBF)/preanastomosis mean CBF. ΔGrad (%), ΔMTT (%), and ΔTTP (%) were similarly calculated.

RESULTS

Postoperative stroke without TNE occurred in 2 of the 25 hemispheres. These 2 hemispheres (in 2 patients) were excluded from the study, and data from the remaining 23 hemispheres (in 20 patients) were analyzed. For each parameter (ΔCBF, ΔGrad, ΔMTT, and ΔTTP) calculated by FlowInsight, the difference between the groups with and without TNEs was significant. The median values for ΔCBF and ΔGrad were significantly higher in the TNE group than in the no-TNE group (ΔCBF 30.13 vs 3.54, p = 0.0106; ΔGrad 62.05 vs 10.78, p = 0.00435), whereas the median values for ΔMTT and ΔTTP were significantly lower in the TNE group (ΔMTT −16.90 vs −7.393, p = 0.023; ΔTTP −29.07 vs −7.02, p = 0.00342). Comparison of the area under the curve (AUC) for each parameter showed that ΔTTP had the highest AUC and was the parameter with the highest diagnostic accuracy (AUC 0.857). The Youden index revealed that the optimal cutoff value of ΔTTP was −11.61 (sensitivity 77.8%, specificity 71.4%) as a predictor of TNEs. In addition, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were calculated, and ΔCBF, ΔGrad, ΔMTT, and ΔTTP each showed a strong correlation with the duration of TNEs. The larger the change in each parameter, the longer the TNEs persisted.

CONCLUSIONS

Intraoperative ICG videoangiography findings were correlated with the occurrence and duration of TNEs after direct bypass surgery for MMD. Screening for cases at high risk of TNEs can be achieved by ICG analysis using FlowInsight.

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Çagatay Önal, Hiroshi Otsubo, Takashi Araki, Shiro Chitoku, Ayako Ochi, Shelly Weiss, William Logan, Irene Elliott, O. Carter Snead III and James T. Rutka

Object. This study was performed to evaluate the complications of invasive subdural grid monitoring during epilepsy surgery in children.

Methods. The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 35 consecutive children with intractable localization-related epilepsy who underwent invasive video electroencephalography (EEG) with subdural grid electrodes at The Hospital for Sick Children between 1996 and 2001. After subdural grid monitoring and identification of the epileptic regions, cortical excisions and/or multiple subpial transections (MSTs) were performed. Complications after these procedures were then categorized as either surgical or neurological.

There were 17 male and 18 female patients whose mean age was 11.7 years. The duration of epilepsy before surgery ranged from 2 to 17 years (mean 8.3 years). Fifteen children (43%) had previously undergone surgical procedures for epilepsy. The number of electrodes on the grids ranged from 40 to 117 (mean 95). During invasive video EEG, cerebrospinal fluid leaks occurred in seven patients. Also, cerebral edema (five patients), subdural hematoma (five patients), and intracerebral hematoma (three patients) were observed on postprocedural imaging studies but did not require surgical intervention. Hypertrophic scars on the scalp were observed in nine patients. There were three infections, including one case of osteomyelitis and two superficial wound infections. Blood loss and the amounts of subsequent transfusions correlated directly with the size and number of electrodes on the grids (p < 0.001). Twenty-eight children derived significant benefit from cortical resections and MSTs, with a more than 50% reduction of seizures and a mean follow-up period of 30 months.

Conclusions. The results of this study indicate that carefully selected pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy can benefit from subdural invasive monitoring procedures that entail definite but acceptable risks.