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Open access

Fumiaki Kanamori, Yoshio Araki, Kinya Yokoyama, Kenji Uda, Takashi Mamiya, Shota Nohira, Kai Takayanagi, Kazuki Ishii, Masahiro Nishihori, Takashi Izumi, and Ryuta Saito

BACKGROUND

In patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) who receive superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass, hypoperfusion remote from the anastomosis site rarely occurs. Watershed shift due to direct bypass has been proposed as the mechanism; however, no report has confirmed this phenomenon using angiography.

OBSERVATIONS

A 48-year-old man presented with transient weakness in his left arm. Angiography revealed severe bilateral stenosis of the MCAs and moyamoya vessels. The right anterior cerebral artery (ACA) had short stenosis at A2 but ample blood supply to the cortical area of the right ACA and MCA regions. The patient was diagnosed with MMD and received a single STA-MCA bypass. The next day, he had difficulty communicating, and a cerebral infarction away from the anastomosis site was identified. Perfusion examination revealed hyperperfusion around the direct bypass and hypoperfusion away from the anastomosis site. Angiography revealed bypass patency; however, the original anterograde flow of the right ACA decreased significantly at the stenosed point, indicating an improper watershed shift.

LESSONS

STA-MCA bypass for patients with MMD can cause an improper watershed shift decreasing cerebral flow. Donor flow should be prepared based on each angiographic characteristic, and the risk of the improper watershed shift should be considered.

Full access

Kenji Uda, Yoshio Araki, Shinsuke Muraoka, Shinji Ota, Kentaro Wada, Kinya Yokoyama, Masahiro Nishihori, Takashi Izumi, Sho Okamoto, and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

OBJECTIVE

Transient neurological events (TNEs) occur frequently in the acute phase after direct bypass surgery for moyamoya disease (MMD), but there is currently no way to predict them. FlowInsight is a specialized software for analyzing indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography taken with a surgical microscope. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intraoperative evaluation of local hemodynamic changes around anastomotic sites using FlowInsight could predict the incidence and duration of TNEs.

METHODS

From patients who were diagnosed with MMD in our hospital between August 2014 and March 2017 and who underwent superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass surgery, we investigated 25 hemispheres (in 22 patients) in which intraoperative ICG analysis was performed using FlowInsight. To evaluate the local cerebral hemodynamics before and after anastomosis, regions of interest were set at 3 locations on the brain surface around the anastomotic site, and the mean cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean gradation (Grad), mean transit time (MTT), and mean time to peak (TTP) were calculated from the 3 regions of interest. Furthermore, the change rate in CBF (ΔCBF [%]) was calculated using the formula (postanastomosis mean CBF − preanastomosis mean CBF)/preanastomosis mean CBF. ΔGrad (%), ΔMTT (%), and ΔTTP (%) were similarly calculated.

RESULTS

Postoperative stroke without TNE occurred in 2 of the 25 hemispheres. These 2 hemispheres (in 2 patients) were excluded from the study, and data from the remaining 23 hemispheres (in 20 patients) were analyzed. For each parameter (ΔCBF, ΔGrad, ΔMTT, and ΔTTP) calculated by FlowInsight, the difference between the groups with and without TNEs was significant. The median values for ΔCBF and ΔGrad were significantly higher in the TNE group than in the no-TNE group (ΔCBF 30.13 vs 3.54, p = 0.0106; ΔGrad 62.05 vs 10.78, p = 0.00435), whereas the median values for ΔMTT and ΔTTP were significantly lower in the TNE group (ΔMTT −16.90 vs −7.393, p = 0.023; ΔTTP −29.07 vs −7.02, p = 0.00342). Comparison of the area under the curve (AUC) for each parameter showed that ΔTTP had the highest AUC and was the parameter with the highest diagnostic accuracy (AUC 0.857). The Youden index revealed that the optimal cutoff value of ΔTTP was −11.61 (sensitivity 77.8%, specificity 71.4%) as a predictor of TNEs. In addition, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were calculated, and ΔCBF, ΔGrad, ΔMTT, and ΔTTP each showed a strong correlation with the duration of TNEs. The larger the change in each parameter, the longer the TNEs persisted.

CONCLUSIONS

Intraoperative ICG videoangiography findings were correlated with the occurrence and duration of TNEs after direct bypass surgery for MMD. Screening for cases at high risk of TNEs can be achieved by ICG analysis using FlowInsight.

Full access

Kenji Uda, Yoshio Araki, Shinsuke Muraoka, Shinji Ota, Kentaro Wada, Kinya Yokoyama, Masahiro Nishihori, Takashi Izumi, Sho Okamoto, and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

OBJECTIVE

Transient neurological events (TNEs) occur frequently in the acute phase after direct bypass surgery for moyamoya disease (MMD), but there is currently no way to predict them. FlowInsight is a specialized software for analyzing indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography taken with a surgical microscope. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intraoperative evaluation of local hemodynamic changes around anastomotic sites using FlowInsight could predict the incidence and duration of TNEs.

METHODS

From patients who were diagnosed with MMD in our hospital between August 2014 and March 2017 and who underwent superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass surgery, we investigated 25 hemispheres (in 22 patients) in which intraoperative ICG analysis was performed using FlowInsight. To evaluate the local cerebral hemodynamics before and after anastomosis, regions of interest were set at 3 locations on the brain surface around the anastomotic site, and the mean cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean gradation (Grad), mean transit time (MTT), and mean time to peak (TTP) were calculated from the 3 regions of interest. Furthermore, the change rate in CBF (ΔCBF [%]) was calculated using the formula (postanastomosis mean CBF − preanastomosis mean CBF)/preanastomosis mean CBF. ΔGrad (%), ΔMTT (%), and ΔTTP (%) were similarly calculated.

RESULTS

Postoperative stroke without TNE occurred in 2 of the 25 hemispheres. These 2 hemispheres (in 2 patients) were excluded from the study, and data from the remaining 23 hemispheres (in 20 patients) were analyzed. For each parameter (ΔCBF, ΔGrad, ΔMTT, and ΔTTP) calculated by FlowInsight, the difference between the groups with and without TNEs was significant. The median values for ΔCBF and ΔGrad were significantly higher in the TNE group than in the no-TNE group (ΔCBF 30.13 vs 3.54, p = 0.0106; ΔGrad 62.05 vs 10.78, p = 0.00435), whereas the median values for ΔMTT and ΔTTP were significantly lower in the TNE group (ΔMTT −16.90 vs −7.393, p = 0.023; ΔTTP −29.07 vs −7.02, p = 0.00342). Comparison of the area under the curve (AUC) for each parameter showed that ΔTTP had the highest AUC and was the parameter with the highest diagnostic accuracy (AUC 0.857). The Youden index revealed that the optimal cutoff value of ΔTTP was −11.61 (sensitivity 77.8%, specificity 71.4%) as a predictor of TNEs. In addition, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were calculated, and ΔCBF, ΔGrad, ΔMTT, and ΔTTP each showed a strong correlation with the duration of TNEs. The larger the change in each parameter, the longer the TNEs persisted.

CONCLUSIONS

Intraoperative ICG videoangiography findings were correlated with the occurrence and duration of TNEs after direct bypass surgery for MMD. Screening for cases at high risk of TNEs can be achieved by ICG analysis using FlowInsight.

Restricted access

Çagatay Önal, Hiroshi Otsubo, Takashi Araki, Shiro Chitoku, Ayako Ochi, Shelly Weiss, William Logan, Irene Elliott, O. Carter Snead III, and James T. Rutka

Object. This study was performed to evaluate the complications of invasive subdural grid monitoring during epilepsy surgery in children.

Methods. The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 35 consecutive children with intractable localization-related epilepsy who underwent invasive video electroencephalography (EEG) with subdural grid electrodes at The Hospital for Sick Children between 1996 and 2001. After subdural grid monitoring and identification of the epileptic regions, cortical excisions and/or multiple subpial transections (MSTs) were performed. Complications after these procedures were then categorized as either surgical or neurological.

There were 17 male and 18 female patients whose mean age was 11.7 years. The duration of epilepsy before surgery ranged from 2 to 17 years (mean 8.3 years). Fifteen children (43%) had previously undergone surgical procedures for epilepsy. The number of electrodes on the grids ranged from 40 to 117 (mean 95). During invasive video EEG, cerebrospinal fluid leaks occurred in seven patients. Also, cerebral edema (five patients), subdural hematoma (five patients), and intracerebral hematoma (three patients) were observed on postprocedural imaging studies but did not require surgical intervention. Hypertrophic scars on the scalp were observed in nine patients. There were three infections, including one case of osteomyelitis and two superficial wound infections. Blood loss and the amounts of subsequent transfusions correlated directly with the size and number of electrodes on the grids (p < 0.001). Twenty-eight children derived significant benefit from cortical resections and MSTs, with a more than 50% reduction of seizures and a mean follow-up period of 30 months.

Conclusions. The results of this study indicate that carefully selected pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy can benefit from subdural invasive monitoring procedures that entail definite but acceptable risks.

Open access

Yoshio Araki, Kinya Yokoyama, Kenji Uda, Fumiaki Kanamori, Takashi Mamiya, Kai Takayanagi, Kazuki Ishii, Masahiro Nishihori, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Kuniaki Tanahashi, Yuichi Nagata, Takafumi Tanei, Yusuke Nishimura, Takashi Izumi, and Ryuta Saito

BACKGROUND

Remote cerebral infarction after combined revascularization of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory is rare in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) with a fetal-type posterior communicating artery (PCoA).

OBSERVATIONS

A 57-year-old woman developed numbness in her right upper limb and transient motor weakness and was diagnosed with MMD. She also had a headache attack and a scintillating scotoma in the right visual field. Preoperative magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed stenosis of the left posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Combined revascularization was performed for the left MCA territory. No new neurological deficits were observed for 2 days after the operation, but right hemianopia, alexia, and agraphia appeared on postoperative day (POD) 4. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a new left occipitoparietal lobe infarction, and MRA showed occlusion of the distal left PCA. After that point, the alexia and agraphia gradually improved, but right hemianopia remained at the time of discharge on POD 18.

LESSONS

Cerebral ischemia in the PCA territory may occur after combined revascularization of the MCA territory in patients with fetal-type PCoA. For these cases, a double-barrel bypass or indirect revascularization to induce a slow conversion could be considered on its own as a treatment option.

Open access

Yoshio Araki, Kinya Yokoyama, Kenji Uda, Fumiaki Kanamori, Michihiro Kurimoto, Yoshiki Shiba, Takashi Mamiya, Kai Takayanagi, Kazuki Ishii, Masahiro Nishihori, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Kuniaki Tanahashi, Yuichi Nagata, Yusuke Nishimura, Sho Okamoto, Masaki Sumitomo, Takashi Izumi, and Ryuta Saito

BACKGROUND

Transient neurological deficits (TNDs) develop after cerebral revascularization in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). The authors report a rare pediatric MMD case with extensive decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and prolonged TNDs after combined revascularization.

OBSERVATIONS

A 9-year-old boy presented with transient left upper limb weakness, and MMD was diagnosed. A right-sided combined surgery was performed. Two years after the surgery, frequent but transient facial (right-sided) and upper limb weakness appeared. The left internal carotid artery terminal stenosis had progressed. Therefore, a left combined revascularization was performed. The patient’s motor aphasia and right upper limb weakness persisted for approximately 10 days after surgery. Magnetic resonance angiography showed that the direct bypass was patent, but extensive decreases in left CBF were observed using single photon emission tomography. With adequate fluid therapy and blood pressure control, the neurological symptoms eventually disappeared, and CBF improved.

LESSONS

The environment of cerebral hemodynamics is heterogeneous after cerebral revascularization for MMD, and the exact mechanism of CBF decreases was not identified. TNDs are significantly associated with the onset of stroke during the early postoperative period. Therefore, appropriate treatment is desired after determining complex cerebral hemodynamics using CBF studies.

Open access

Yoshio Araki, Takashi Mamiya, Naotoshi Fujita, Kinya Yokoyama, Kenji Uda, Fumiaki Kanamori, Kai Takayanagi, Kazuki Ishii, Masahiro Nishihori, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Kuniaki Tanahashi, Yuichi Nagata, Yusuke Nishimura, Takafumi Tanei, Shinsuke Muraoka, Takashi Izumi, Katsuhiko Kato, and Ryuta Saito

BACKGROUND

Symptomatic hyperperfusion after cerebral revascularization for pediatric moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare phenomenon. The authors report a series of patients with this condition.

OBSERVATIONS

In all three patients in this case series, the combined revascularization was on the left side, the patency of bypass grafts was confirmed after surgery, and focal hyperemia around the anastomotic site was observed on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). On the first to eighth days after surgery, all of the patients developed neurological manifestations, including motor aphasia, cheiro-oral syndrome, motor weakness of their right upper limbs, and severe headaches. These symptoms disappeared completely approximately 2 weeks after surgery, and all patients were discharged from the hospital. Quantitative SPECT was performed to determine the proportional change in cerebral blood flow (ΔRCBF) (to ipsilateral cerebellar ratio (denoted ΔRCBF) in the region of interest around the anastomoses, and the mean value was 1.34 (range, 1.29–1.41).

LESSONS

This rare condition, which develops soon after surgery, requires an accurate diagnosis by SPECT. One indicator is that the ΔRCBF has risen to 1.3 or higher. Subsequently, strategic blood pressure treatment and fluid management could prevent the development of hemorrhagic stroke.