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Takao Watanabe, Yoichi Katayama, Takao Fukushima and Tatsuro Kawamata

Object

The retrosigmoid intradural suprameatal approach with the patient in a semisitting position is an effective alternative to transpetrosal approaches for the treatment of petroclival meningiomas. The authors have made a simple modification to the retrosigmoid intradural suprameatal approach by using the lateral oblique position and preferentially dividing the tentorium with limited drilling of the suprameatal bone, which is termed the “lateral supracerebellar transtentorial approach.”

Methods

Twenty-six patients with petroclival meningiomas surgically treated via the lateral supracerebellar transtentorial approach were analyzed. All tumors had most of their bulk in the posterior fossa with some degree of extension into the middle fossa and/or Meckel cave. The patient is placed in the lateral oblique position, and a standard retrosigmoid craniotomy is performed. The tentorium medial to the trigeminal nerve is incised toward the free edge, which improves exposure to the petroclival region without extensive resection of the suprameatal petrous bone.

Results

Gross-total resection was achieved in 11 patients (42%). Ten patients (38%) underwent subtotal resection, and 5 patients (19%) underwent partial resection. There was no incidence of operative death, and the postoperative permanent morbidity rate was 15%. All patients except one did well postoperatively and were independent at the time of their last follow-up examinations.

Conclusions

The lateral supracerebellar transtentorial approach provides the simplest and safest access to the petroclival region. It offers an advantageous approach to petroclival meningiomas exclusively located in the posterior fossa with minimal extension into the Meckel cave and middle fossa.

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Yoichi Katayama, Shigeyoshi Kimura, Takao Watanabe, Atsuo Yoshino and Morimichi Koshinaga

✓ The authors report the case of a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) arising in the tentorium in a 5-year-old boy who presented with frequent vomiting and mild palsy of the left abducent nerve. Following complete surgical excision of the tumor via a transpetrosal approach, the patient has thus far been disease free for 7 years. The tumor tissue was composed of small cells with uniform round nuclei and minimal identifiable cytoplasm. Homer—Wright rosettes were frequently observed. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated a positive reaction to HBA-71, which recognizes the cell surface glycoprotein p30/32, a product of the MIC2 gene. Both the clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of this tumor are consistent with a diagnosis of peripheral PNET, which is genetically distinct from the more common intracranial PNET.

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Atsuo Yoshino, Yoichi Katayama, Takao Watanabe, Jun Kurihara and Shigeyoshi Kimura

✓ Except for villous hypertrophy of the choroid plexus that may not be true tumors, multiple choroid plexus papillomas are extremely rare. The authors report a case involving multiple choroid plexus papillomas that were distinct from villous hypertrophy. These lesions were localized, one in the atrium of the right lateral ventricle and the other in the inferior horn of the left lateral ventricle. A review of the literature revealed that this case represented the first reported case of true multiple choroid plexus papillomas documented by findings on magnetic resonance imaging.

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Takao Watanabe, Yasuhide Makiyama, Hiroshi Nishimoto, Masatomo Matsumoto, Akira Kikuchi and Takashi Tsubokawa

✓ A case of suprasellar germ-cell tumor in a 9-year-old girl who later developed ovarian dysgerminoma is reported. The clinical course of the case is described and a double-primary tumor, rather than metastasis from either tumor to the other, is suggested by the authors to explain the oncogenesis in this patient.

The authors strongly encourage that patients with intracranial germinoma be examined for associated extraneural lesions before, as well as after, the completion of the initial therapy.

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Kei Watanabe, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Toru Hirano, Naoto Endo, Akiyoshi Yamazaki and Takao Homma

Object

The mechanism underlying cervical flexion myelopathy (CFM) is unclear. The authors report the results of anterior decompression and fusion (ADF) in terms of neurological status and radiographically documented status in young patients and discuss the pathophysiological mechanism of the entity.

Methods

Twelve patients underwent ADF in which autogenous iliac bone graft was placed. The fusion area was one segment in four cases, two segments in seven, and three segments in one. Neurological status, as determined by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, radiographic findings, and intraoperative findings were evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 63.3 months (range 20–180 months).

Grip strength was significantly improved and sensory disturbances resolved completely. Intrinsic muscle atrophy, however, persisted in all patients at the final follow-up examination. Local kyphosis in the flexed-neck position at the fusion levels was corrected by surgery. Preoperative computerized tomography myelography revealed that the cord compression index, which was calculated by anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the spinal cord, decreased to 33 ± 6.2% in the flexed-neck position from 39.7 ± 9.9% in the extended-neck position. The anterior dura mater—spinal cord distance decreased to 1.9 ± 0.7 mm in the flexed-neck position from 4 ± 1.2 mm in extended-neck position. The posterior dura mater—spinal cord distance increased to 2.5 ± 1.1 mm in the flexed-neck position from 1.3 ± 0.5 mm in the extended-neck position.

Conclusions

Postoperative neurological status was improved in terms of grip strength, sensory disturbance, and JOA score, and local kyphosis in the flexed-neck position at the fusion levels was reduced and stabilized by ADF.

In most cases local kyphosis in the flexed-neck position was demonstrated at the corresponding disc level, as were cervical cord compression and decrease of the anterior wall of the dura mater—spinal cord distance in the flexed-neck position. Therefore, the contact pressure between the spinal cord and anterior structures (intact vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs) in the mobile and kyphotic segments was considered to contribute to the onset of CFM. The ADF-related improvement of the clinical symptoms, preventing kyphotic alignment in flexion and decreasing movement of the cervical spine, supports the idea of a contact pressure mechanism. Furthermore, short ADF performed only at the corresponding segments can preserve more mobile segments compared with posterior fusion. Thus, ADF should be the first choice in the treatment of CFM.

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Tomio Sasaki, Susumu Wakai, Takao Asano, Takashi Watanabe, Takaaki Kirino and Keiji Sano

✓ The in vivo spasmogenic capacity of a lipid hydroperoxide (15-hydroperoxy arachidonic acid: 15-HPAA) was studied in a chronic experiment using the dog. The 15-HPAA was injected into the cisterna magna (0.2 or 2 mg emulsified in bovine serum albumin solution). The changes in diameter of the basilar artery were followed by angiography, and the morphological changes were studied by electron microscopy. The cisternal injection of 0.2 mg of 15-HPAA caused a mild constriction of the basilar artery which lasted about 7 hours. The cisternal injection of 2 mg of 15-HPAA caused a biphasic constriction, the initial phase of which was a moderate narrowing lasting about 10 hours. The second phase started on the 2nd or the 3rd day after injection. The intensity of the arterial narrowing was more pronounced in the second phase than in the first. The prolonged secondary constriction of the basilar artery continued until sacrifice on the 7th day after injection.

Electron microscopic study revealed a marked degenerative change in the endothelium and myonecrotic changes in the tunica media. The prolonged arterial constriction in the second phase was invariably associated with remarkable degeneration of the endothelium. On the other hand, myonecrotic changes were limited to a small number of smooth-muscle cells.

The results of the present study are consonant with the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation associated with lysis of the subarachnoid clot is involved in the genesis of chronic vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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Masaaki Yamamoto, Yoshinori Higuchi, Toru Serizawa, Takuya Kawabe, Osamu Nagano, Yasunori Sato, Takao Koiso, Shinya Watanabe, Hitoshi Aiyama and Hidetoshi Kasuya

OBJECTIVE

The results of 3-stage Gamma Knife treatment (3-st-GK-Tx) for relatively large brain metastases have previously been reported for a series of patients in Chiba, Japan (referred to in this study as the C-series). In the current study, the authors reappraised, using a competing risk analysis, the efficacy and safety of 3-st-GK-Tx by comparing their experience with that of the C-series.

METHODS

This was a retrospective cohort study. Among 1767 patients undergoing GK radiosurgery for brain metastases at Mito Gamma House during the 2005–2015 period, 78 (34 female, 44 male; mean age 65 years, range 35–86 years) whose largest tumor was > 10 cm3, treated with 3-st-GK-Tx, were studied (referred to in this study as the M-series). The target volumes were covered with a 50% isodose gradient and irradiated with a peripheral dose of 10 Gy at each procedure. The interval between procedures was 2 weeks. Because competing risk analysis had not been employed in the published C-series, the authors reanalyzed the previously published data using this method.

RESULTS

The overall median survival time after 3-st-GK-Tx was 8.3 months (95% CI 5.6–12.0 months) in the M-series and 8.6 months (95% CI 5.5–10.6 months) in the C-series (p = 0.41). Actuarial survival rates at the 6th and 12th post–3-st-GK-Tx months were, respectively, 55.1% and 35.2% in the M-series and 62.5% and 26.4% in the C-series (HR 1.175, 95% CI 0.790–1.728, p = 0.42). Cumulative incidences at the 12th post–3-st-GK-Tx, determined by competing risk analyses, of neurological deterioration (14.2% in C-series vs 12.8% in M-series), neurological death (7.2% vs 7.7%), local recurrence (4.8% vs 6.2%), repeat SRS (25.9% vs 18.0%), and SRS-related complications (2.3% vs 5.1%) did not differ significantly between the 2 series.

CONCLUSIONS

There were no significant differences in post–3-st-GK-Tx results between the 2 series in terms of overall survival times, neurological death, maintained neurological status, local control, repeat SRS, and SRS-related complications. The previously published results (C-series) are considered to be validated by the M-series results.

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Masaaki Yamamoto, Toru Serizawa, Yoshinori Higuchi, Osamu Nagano, Hitoshi Aiyama, Takao Koiso, Shinya Watanabe, Takuya Kawabe, Yasunori Sato and Hidetoshi Kasuya

OBJECTIVE

With the aging of the population, increasing numbers of elderly patients with brain metastasis (BM) are undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Among recently reported prognostic grading indexes, only the basic score for brain metastases (BSBM) is applicable to patients 65 years or older. However, the major weakness of this system is that no BM-related factors are graded. This prompted the authors to develop a new grading system, the elderly-specific (ES)–BSBM.

METHODS

For this IRB-approved, retrospective cohort study, the authors used their prospectively accumulated database comprising 3267 consecutive patients undergoing Gamma Knife SRS for BMs during the 1998–2016 period at the Mito GammaHouse. Among these 3267 patients, 1789 patients ≥ 65 years of age were studied (Yamamoto series [Y-series]). Another series of 1785 patients ≥ 65 years of age in whom Serizawa and colleagues performed Gamma Knife SRS during the same period (Serizawa series [S-series]) was used for validity testing of the ES-BSBM.

RESULTS

Two factors were identified as strongly impacting longer survival after SRS by means of multivariable analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model with a stepwise selection procedure. These factors are the number of tumors (solitary vs multiple: HR 1.450, 95% CI 1.299–1.621; p < 0.0001) and cumulative tumor volume (≤ 15 cm3 vs > 15 cm3: HR 1.311, 95% CI 1.078–1.593; p = 0.0067). The new index is the addition of scores 0 and 1 for these 2 factors to the BSBM. The ES-BSBM system is based on categorization into 3 classes by adding these 2 scores to those of the original BSBM. Each ES-BSBM category has 2 possible scores. For the category ES-BSBM 4–5, the score is either 4 or 5; for ES-BSBM 2–3, the score is either 2 or 3; and for ES-BSBM 0–1, the score is either 0 or 1. In the Y-series, the median survival times (MSTs, months) after SRS were 17.5 (95% CI 15.4–19.3) in ES-BSBM 4–5, 6.9 (95% CI 6.4–7.4) in ES-BSBM 2–3, and 2.8 (95% CI 2.5–3.6) in ES-BSBM 0–1 (p < 0.0001). Also, in the S-series, MSTs were, respectively, 20.4 (95% CI 17.2–23.4), 7.9 (95% CI 7.4–8.5), and 3.2 (95% CI 2.8–3.6) (p < 0.0001). The ES-BSBM system was shown to be applicable to patients with all primary tumor types as well as to those 80 years or older.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors found that the addition of the number of tumors and cumulative tumor volume as scoring factors to the BSBM system significantly improved the prognostic value of this index. The present study is strengthened by testing the ES-BSBM in a different patient group.

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Hitoshi Aiyama, Masaaki Yamamoto, Takuya Kawabe, Shinya Watanabe, Takao Koiso, Yasunori Sato, Yoshinori Higuchi, Eiichi Ishikawa, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Akira Matsumura and Hidetoshi Kasuya

OBJECTIVE

Although the conformity index (CI) and the gradient index (GI), which were proposed by Paddick and colleagues, are both logically considered to correlate with good posttreatment results after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), this hypothesis has not been confirmed clinically. The authors’ aim was to reappraise whether high CI values correlate with reduced tumor progression rates, and whether low GI values correlate with reduced complication incidences.

METHODS

This was an institutional review board–approved, retrospective cohort study conducted using a prospectively accumulated database including 3271 patients who underwent Gamma Knife SRS for brain metastases (BMs) during the 1998–2016 period. Among the 3271 patients, 925 with a single BM at the time of SRS (335 women and 590 men, mean age 66 [range 24–93] years) were studied. The mean/median CIs were 0.62/0.66 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.53–0.74, range 0.08–0.88) and the mean/median GIs were 3.20/3.09 (IQR 2.83–3.39, range 2.27–11.4).

RESULTS

SRS-related complications occurred in 38 patients (4.1%), with a median post-SRS interval of 11.5 (IQR 6.0–25.8, maximum 118.0) months. Cumulative incidences of post-SRS complications determined by a competing risk analysis were 2.2%, 3.2%, 3.6%, 3.8%, and 3.9% at the 12th, 24th, 36th, 48th, and 60th post-SRS month, respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that only two clinical factors (i.e., peripheral doses and brain volume receiving ≥ 12 Gy) correlated with complication rates. However, neither CIs nor GIs impacted the incidences of complications. Among the 925 patients, post-SRS MRI was performed at least once in 716 of them, who were thus eligible for local progression evaluation. Among these 716 patients, local progression was confirmed in 96 (13.4%), with a median post-SRS interval of 10.8 (IQR 6.7–19.5, maximum 59.8) months. Cumulative incidences of local progression determined by a competing risk analysis were 7.7%, 12.6%, 14.2%, 14.8%, and 15.3% at the 12th, 24th, 36th, 48th, and 60th post-SRS month, respectively. Multivariable analyses showed neurological symptoms, extracerebral metastases, repeat SRS, and CIs to correlate with incidences of local progression, whereas GIs had no impact on local tumor progression. Particularly, cumulative incidences of local progression were significantly lower in patients with CIs < 0.65 than in those with CIs ≥ 0.65 (adjusted hazard ratio 1.870, 95% confidence interval 1.299–2.843; p = 0.0034).

CONCLUSIONS

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first analysis to focus on the clinical significance of CI and GI based on a large series of patients with BM. Contrary to the majority opinion that dose planning with higher CI and lower GI results in good post-SRS outcomes (i.e., low local progression rates and minimal complications), this study clearly showed that the lower the CIs were, the lower the local progression rates were, and that the GI did not impact complication rates.