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Takanobu Kaido, Hiroyuki Nakase, Ryunosuke Uranishi and Toshisuke Sakaki

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Takanobu Kaido, Tohru Hoshida, Toshiaki Taoka and Toshisuke Sakaki

Object. The lateral occipital cortex in humans is known as the “extrastriate visual cortex.” It is, however, an unexplored field of research, and the anatomical nomenclature for its surface has still not been standardized. This study was designed to investigate whether the lateral occipital cortex in humans has retinotopic representation.

Methods. Four right-handed patients with a diagnosis of intractable epilepsy from space-occupying lesions in the occipital lobe or epilepsy originating in the occipital lobe received permanently implanted subdural electrodes. Electrical cortical stimulation was applied directly applied to the brain through metal electrodes by using a biphasic stimulator. The location of each electrode was measured on a lateral skull x-ray study. Each patient considered a whiteboard with vertical and horizontal median lines. The patient was asked to look at the midpoint on the whiteboard. If a visual hallucination or illusion occurred, the patient recorded its outline, shape, color, location, and motion on white paper one tenth the size of, and with vertical and horizontal median lines similar to those on, the whiteboard. Polar angles and eccentricities of the midpoints of the phosphenes from the coordinate origin were measured on the paper. On stimulation of the lateral occipital lobe, 44 phosphenes occurred. All phosphenes were circular or dotted, with a diameter of approximately 1 cm, except one that was like a curtain in the peripheral end of the upper and lower visual fields on stimulation of the parietooccipital region. All phosphenes appeared in the visual field contralateral to the cerebral hemisphere stimulated. On stimulation of the lateral occipital lobe, 22 phosphenes moved centrifugally or toward a horizontal line. From three-dimensional scatterplots and contour maps of the polar angles and eccentricities in relation to the x-ray coordinates of the electrodes, one can infer that the lateral occipital cortex in humans has retinotopic representation.

Conclusions. The authors found that phosphenes induced by electrical cortical stimulation of the lateral occipital cortex represent retinotopy. From these results one can assert that visual field representation with retinotopic relation exists in the extrastriate visual cortex.

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Tetsuya Morimoto, Takanobu Kaido, Yoshitomo Uchiyama, Hidemori Tokunaga, Toshisuke Sakaki and Satoru Iwasaki

✓ A 70-year-old man presented with repeated vertebrobasilar insufficiency for 3 years. Four-vessel angiography revealed complete occlusion of the nondominant left vertebral artery on head turning to the right. Three-dimensional computerized tomography angiography demonstrated atlantoaxial joint dislocation when the head was turned to the right, in accordance with simultaneous occlusion of the left vertebral artery caused by stretching of the artery at C1–2. After posterior fixation of C1–2 by a Halifax interlaminar fixation system, the patient had no further episodes. Hemodynamic function associated with nondominant vertebral artery occlusion contributed to the symptoms in this case.

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Takanobu Kaido, Tohru Hoshida, Ryunosuke Uranishi, Nobuhisa Akita, Akihira Kotani, Noriyuki Nishi and Toshisuke Sakaki

✓ The authors describe a case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) associated with previous gamma knife radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM). A 14-year-old boy had undergone radiosurgery for an AVM, which was performed using a 201-source 60Co gamma knife system at another institution. The maximum and margin radiation doses used in the procedure were 40 and 20 Gy, respectively. One year after radiosurgery, the patient noticed onset of mild left hemiparesis due to radiation necrosis.

Six and one-half years after radiosurgery, at the age of 20 years, the patient experienced an attack of generalized tonic—clonic seizure. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed the existence of a brain tumor in the right parietal lobe. The patient underwent an operation and the histological diagnosis of the lesion was GBM. Ten months following the operation, that is, 99 months postradiosurgery, this patient died.

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a neoplasm induced by radiosurgery for an AVM and the second case in which it occurred following radiosurgery for intracranial disease.

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Naoki Ikegaya, Akio Takahashi, Takanobu Kaido, Yuu Kaneko, Masaki Iwasaki, Nobutaka Kawahara and Taisuke Otsuki

Surgical treatment of the insula is notorious for its high probability of motor complications, particularly when resecting the superoposterior part. Ischemic damage to the pyramidal tract in the corona radiata has been regarded as the cause of these complications, resulting from occlusion of the perforating arteries to the pyramidal tract through the insular cortex. The authors describe a strategy in which a small piece of gray matter is spared at the bottom of the periinsular sulcus, where the perforating arteries pass en route to the pyramidal tract, in order to avoid these complications. This method was successfully applied in 3 patients harboring focal cortical dysplasia in the posterior insula and frontoparietal operculum surrounding the periinsular sulcus. None of the patients developed permanent postoperative motor deficits, and seizure control was achieved in all 3 cases. The method described in this paper can be adopted for functional preservation of the pyramidal tract in the corona radiata when resecting epileptogenic pathologies involving insular and opercular regions.

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Takanobu Kaido, Taisuke Otsuki, Akiyoshi Kakita, Kenji Sugai, Yoshiaki Saito, Takafumi Sakakibara, Akio Takahashi, Yuu Kaneko, Yuko Saito, Hitoshi Takahashi, Ryoko Honda, Eiji Nakagawa, Masayuki Sasaki and Masayuki Itoh


Some patients are not seizure free even after epileptogenic cortical resection. The authors recently described a case of frontal lobe epilepsy cured after the resection of periventricular white matter and striatum, in which dysplastic neurons were revealed. The authors attempted to confirm similar cases.


They reviewed the records of 8 children with frontal lobe epilepsy who had daily (7) or monthly (1) seizures and underwent resections including deep brain structures.


Five patients underwent multiple resections. Neuroimaging of the deep structures showed the transmantle sign in 3 patients, ictal hyperperfusion in 6, reduced iomazenil uptake in 2, and spike dipole clustering in 6. All patients became seizure free postoperatively. Focal cortical dysplasia of various types was diagnosed in all patients. Dysmorphic neurons were found in the cortex and subcortical white matter of 5 patients. The striatum was verified in 3 patients in whom dysmorphic neurons were scattered. In the periventricular white matter, prominent astrocytosis was evident in all cases.


Pathological abnormalities such as dysmorphic neurons and astrocytosis in deep brain structures would play a key role in epileptogenesis.

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Naoki Ikegaya, Masaki Iwasaki, Yuu Kaneko, Takanobu Kaido, Yuiko Kimura, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Noriko Sumitomo, Takashi Saito, Eiji Nakagawa, Kenji Sugai, Masayuki Sasaki, Akio Takahashi and Taisuke Otsuki


Cognitive risk associated with insular cortex resection is not well understood. The authors reviewed cognitive and developmental outcomes in pediatric patients who underwent resection of the epileptogenic zone involving the insula.


A review was conducted of 15 patients who underwent resective epilepsy surgery involving the insular cortex for focal cortical dysplasia, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. The median age at surgery was 5.6 years (range 0.3–13.6 years). Developmental/intelligence quotient (DQ/IQ) scores were evaluated before surgery, within 4 months after surgery, and at 12 months or more after surgery. Repeated measures multivariate ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects on outcomes of the within-subject factor (time) and between-subject factors (resection side, anterior insular resection, seizure control, and antiepileptic drug [AED] reduction).


The mean preoperative DQ/IQ score was 60.7 ± 22.8. Left-side resection and anterior insular resection were performed in 9 patients each. Favorable seizure control (International League Against Epilepsy class 1–3) was achieved in 8 patients. Postoperative motor deficits were observed in 9 patients (permanent in 6, transient in 3). Within-subject changes in DQ/IQ were not significantly affected by insular resection (p = 0.13). Postoperative changes in DQ/IQ were not significantly affected by surgical side, anterior insular resection, AED reduction, or seizure outcome. Only verbal function showed no significant changes before and after surgery and no significant effects of within-subject factors.


Resection involving the insula in children with impaired development or intelligence can be performed without significant reduction in DQ/IQ, but carries the risk of postoperative motor deficits.