Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 18 items for

  • Author or Editor: Takamitsu Yamamoto x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Yoichi Katayama, Chikashi Fukaya and Takamitsu Yamamoto

Object. The goal of this study was to identify the neurological characteristics of patients with poststroke pain who show a favorable response to motor cortex (MC) stimulation used to control their pain.

Methods. The neurological characteristics of 31 patients treated by MC stimulation were analyzed. In 15 patients (48%), excellent or good pain control (pain reduction > 60%) was achieved for follow-up periods of more than 2 years by using MC stimulation at intensities below the threshold for muscle contraction. Satisfactory pain control was achieved in 13 (73%) of 18 patients in whom motor weakness in the painful area was virtually absent or mild, but in only two (15%) of the 13 patients who demonstrated moderate or severe weakness in the painful area (p < 0.01). Muscle contraction was inducible in the painful area in 20 patients when stimulated at a higher intensity. No such muscle response was inducible in the remaining 11 patients, no matter how extensively the authors attempted to determine appropriate stimulation sites. Satisfactory pain control was achieved in 14 (70%) of the 20 patients in whom muscle contraction was inducible, but in only one (9%) of the 11 patients in whom muscle contraction was not inducible (p < 0.01). No significant relationship was observed between pain control and various sensory symptoms, including the presence of hypesthesia, spontaneous dysesthesia, hyperpathia, and allodynia, or the disappearance of the N20 component of the median nerve—evoked somatosensory scalp potential. No significant relationship existed between the effect of MC stimulation on the pain and stimulation-induced phenomena, including paresthesia, improvement in motor performance, and attenuation of involuntary movements.

Conclusions. These findings suggest that the pain control afforded by MC stimulation requires neuronal circuits that are maintained by the presence of intact corticospinal tract neurons originating from the MC. Preoperative evaluation of motor weakness of the painful area appears to be useful for predicting a favorable response to MC stimulation in the control of poststroke pain.

Restricted access

Takashi Tsubokawa, Yoichi Katayama and Takamitsu Yamamoto

✓ Persistent hemiballismus after stroke is often difficult to treat. The ballistic movement is sometimes so violent that progressive exhaustion results. The authors report two such cases, which were successfully treated by chronic thalamic stimulation. The lesions responsible for the ballistic movement in these patients were located near the subthalamic nucleus and in the putamen, respectively. The thalamic nucleus ventrolateralis and nucleus ventralis intermedius were stimulated with 0.2 to 0.3 msec pulses at 50 to 150 Hz and 4 to 7 V continuously during the day. Several weeks later, complete control of the hemiballismus was achieved during stimulation. The improvement was clearly not attributable to spontaneous recovery, because ballistic movement reappeared after termination of the stimulation. The stimulation has remained effective for more than 16 months in both cases without any serious complications. Chronic thalamic stimulation appears to be useful for controlling persistent hemiballismus, as it is for other involuntary movement disorders.

Restricted access

Takashi Tsubokawa, Yoichi Katayama, Takamitsu Yamamoto, Teruyasu Hirayama and Seigou Koyama

✓ Analysis of the authors' experience over the last 10 years has indicated that excellent pain control has rarely been obtained by thalamic relay nucleus stimulation in patients with thalamic pain. In the present study, 11 patients with thalamic pain were treated by chronic stimulation of the precentral gyrus. In eight patients (73%), the stimulation system was internalized since excellent pain control was achieved during a 1-week test period of precentral gyrus stimulation. In contrast, no clear effect was noted or the original pain was even exacerbated by postcentral gyrus stimulation. The effect of precentral stimulation was unchanged in five patients (45%) for follow-up periods of more than 2 years. In the remaining three patients, the effect decreased gradually over several months. This outcome was significantly better than that obtained in an earlier series tested by the authors with thalamic relay nucleus stimulation (p < 0.05). The pain inhibition usually occurred at intensities below the threshold for production of muscle contraction (pulse duration 0.1 to 0.5 msec, intensity 3 to 8 V). When good pain inhibition was achieved, the patients reported a slight tingling or mild vibration sensation during stimulation projected in the same area of distribution as their pain.

The authors discuss the possibility that, in deafferentation pain, sensory neurons below the level of deafferentation cannot exert their normal inhibitory influences toward deafferented nociceptive neurons because of the development of aberrant connections. Thus, while stimulation of the first- to third-order sensory neurons at the level of the thalamic relay nucleus or below cannot bring about good pain inhibition in patients with thalamic pain, activation of hypothetical fourth-order sensory neurons through precentral stimulation may be able to inhibit deafferented nociceptive neurons within the cortex. None of the patients developed either observable or electroencephalographic seizure activity.

Restricted access

Chikashi Fukaya, Yoichi Katayama, Masahiko Kasai, Jun Kurihara and Takamitsu Yamamoto

✓ Intraoperative monitoring techniques for protecting the integrity of the oculomotor nerves during skull base surgery have been reported by several investigators, all of which involved the use of electromyographic responses to extraocular muscles. However, these techniques have not yet become popular because of the complexity of the procedures. The authors report an extremely simple and far more reliable technique in which electrooculographic (EOG) monitoring is used. The oculomotor nerves were stimulated with a monopolar electrode during skull base exposure. The polarity of the EOG responses recorded with surface electrodes placed on the skin around the eyeball yielded precise information concerning the location and function of the oculomotor and abducent nerves. In addition, with the aid of continuous EOG monitoring that detected transient changes in the background waves, surgical procedures that might impinge on oculomotor nerve function could be avoided. The present technique has been used in eight patients with skull base tumors and with it, the authors have achieved excellent results.

Restricted access

Yoichi Katayama, Takashi Tsubokawa, Tsuyoshi Maeda and Takamitsu Yamamoto

✓ In order to determine adequate therapeutic approaches for cavernous malformations of the third ventricle, the authors reviewed a series of five such malformations managed at their institution and nine others reported in the literature. Four subgroups were identified in terms of the site of origin and could be characterized by different clinical manifestations: visual field defects and endocrine function deficits in patients with malformations in the suprachiasmatic region (six cases); symptoms caused by hydrocephalus in those with malformations in the foramen of Monro region (five cases); and deficits of short-term memory in those with malformations in the lateral wall (two cases) or of the floor of the third ventricle (one case). Unlike cavernous malformations at other locations, malformations of the third ventricle frequently demonstrated rapid growth (43%) and mass effects (71%). The surgical or autopsy findings suggested that the growth was attributable to repeated intralesional hemorrhages. Extralesional hemorrhage was also not uncommon, occurring in 29% of patients. Such tendencies require the adoption of a more aggressive approach to this particular group of cavernous malformations as compared to those in other locations. The risks of regrowth and extralesional hemorrhage appear to be reduced only by complete excision. The surgical approaches adopted should be aimed at providing the best access to the site where the malformation has arisen. The translamina terminalis approach for cavernous malformations in the suprachiasmatic region, the transventricular or transcallosal interfornicial approaches for those in the foramen of Monro region and the transvelum interpositum approach for those in the lateral wall or the floor of the third ventricle appear to be appropriate. In order to select the adequate surgical approach, precise diagnosis of the site of origin is crucial. In addition to neuroimaging techniques, the patient's initial symptoms provide valuable information.

Restricted access

Shinya Okuda, Akira Miyauchi, Takenori Oda, Takamitsu Haku, Tomio Yamamoto and Motoki Iwasaki

Object

Previous studies of surgical complications associated with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) are of limited value due to intrastudy variation in instrumentation and fusion techniques. The purpose of the present study was to examine rates of intraoperative and postoperative complications of PLIF using a large number of cases with uniform instrumentation and a uniform fusion technique.

Methods

The authors reviewed the hospital records of 251 patients who underwent PLIF for degenerative lumbar disorders between 1996 and 2002 and who could be followed for at least 2 years. Intraoperative, early postoperative, and late postoperative complications were investigated.

Intraoperative complications occurred in 26 patients: dural tearing in 19 patients and pedicle screw malposition in seven patients. Intraoperative complications did not affect the postoperative clinical results. Early postoperative complications occurred in 19 patients: brain infarction occurred in one, infection in one, and neurological complications in 17. Of the 17 patients with neurological complications, nine showed severe motor loss such as foot drop; the remaining eight patients showed slight motor loss or radicular pain alone, and their symptoms improved within 6 weeks. Late postoperative complications occurred in 17 patients: hardware failure in three, nonunion in three, and adjacent-segment degeneration in 11. Postoperative progression of symptomatic adjacentsegment degeneration was defined as a condition that required additional surgery to treat neurological deterioration.

Conclusions

The most serious complications of PLIF were postoperative severe neurological deficits and adjacent-segment degeneration. Prevention and management of such complications are necessary to attain good long-term clinical results.

Restricted access
Restricted access

Chikashi Fukaya, Yoichi Katayama, Masahiko Kasai, Jun Kurihara, Sadahiro Maejima and Takamitsu Yamamoto

Object. Histopathological studies on spinal cord injury (SCI) have demonstrated time-dependent spread of tissue damage during the initial several hours postinjury. When the long tract within the spinal cord is stimulated, a large monophasic positivity occurs at the injury site. This type of potential, termed the killed-end evoked potential (KEEP), indicates that a nerve impulse approaches but does not pass beyond the injury site. The authors tested the hypothesis that the damage spread can be evaluated as a progressive shift of the KEEP on a real-time basis. The effect of high-dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) on the spread of tissue damage was also examined by this methodology.

Methods. The KEEP was recorded using an electrode array placed on the spinal cord at the T-10 level in cats. This electrode array consisted of multiple 0.2-mm-diameter electrodes, each separated by 0.5 mm. Spinal cord injury was induced using a vascular clip (65 g pinching pressure for 30 seconds). The midline posterior surface of the spinal cord was stimulated bipolarly at the C-7 level by applying a single pulse at supramaximal intensity. During the initial period of 6 hours postinjury, the localization of the largest KEEP shifted progressively up to 2.5 mm rostral from the injury site. The amplitude of the KEEP recorded at the injury site decreased to 55 to 70% and became slightly shortened in latency as the localization of the largest KEEP shifted rostrally. These findings imply that the injury site KEEP represents the volume-conducted potential of the largest KEEP at the site of the conduction block. It moved away from the injury site in association with the damage spread, and this was confirmed histopathologically. A decrease in amplitude of KEEP at the injury site appeared to be the most sensitive measure of the damage spread, because the amplitude of the volume-conducted KEEP is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the recording site and site of conduction block. Administered immediately after SCI, MPSS clearly inhibited these events, especially within 30 minutes postinjury.

Conclusions. The KEEP enables sequential evaluation to be made of the time-dependent spread of tissue damage in SCI in the same animal. It is, therefore, useful for detecting the effect of therapeutic interventions and for determining the therapeutic time window. The efficiency of MPSS to inhibit the spread of damaged tissue appeared to be maximized when it was administered within the initial 30-minute period postinjury.

Restricted access

Takamitsu Yamamoto, Yoichi Katayama, Toshikazu Kano, Kazutaka Kobayashi, Hideki Oshima and Chikashi Fukaya

Object. The tremor-suppression effect resulting from long-term stimulation of the thalamic nucleus ventralis intermedius (Vim) and the nucleus ventralis oralis posterior (Vop) was examined in the treatment of parkinsonian, essential, and poststroke tremor.

Methods. After identifying the accurate anterior border of the nucleus ventrocaudalis (Vc), deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes with four contacts were inserted into the Vim—Vop region at an angle of between 40 and 50° from the horizontal plane of the anterior commissure—posterior commissure line. Two distal contacts were placed on the Vim side and two proximal contacts on the Vop side. The best sites of stimulation and parameters of bipolar stimulation were selected in each case and follow-up examinations were conducted for at least 2 years.

In all 15 cases of parkinsonian tremor (18 sides) and in 14 of 15 cases of essential tremor (24 of 25 sides), cathodal stimulation of the Vim side with anodal stimulation of the Vop side was determined to be the best choice to suppress the tremor. In poststroke tremor, however, six of 12 cases (six of 12 sides) were selected for cathodal stimulation of the Vop side with anodal stimulation of the Vim side. The average stimulation intensity 1 month after initiation of DBS was 1.61 V in cases of parkinsonian tremor, 1.99 V in cases of essential tremor, and 2.39 V in cases of poststroke tremor. A comparison of stimulation intensities required at 1 and 24 months after initiation of DBS revealed that the lowest effective stimulation intensity increased 24.2% in cases of parkinsonian tremor, 21% in cases of poststroke tremor, and 46.9% in cases of essential tremor. Suppression of tremor was achieved in all cases (42 cases, 55 sides) during a period of 2 years. Nevertheless, two cases of poststroke tremor required dual-lead stimulation at the unilateral Vim—Vop region from the start of DBS, and two cases of essential tremor and one case of poststroke tremor required a stimulation intensity that was high enough to evoke unpleasant paresthesia and slight motor contraction during the follow-up period.

Conclusions. Effective stimulation sites and stimulation intensities differ in different kinds of tremor; Vim and Vop stimulation is necessary in many cases. Interactions of the Vim and Vop under the control of interconnected areas of the motor circuitry may play an important role in both the development and DBS-induced suppression of tremor.