Elderly patients are particularly at risk for severe morbidity following surgery. Among the various risk factors, age and skull base location of meningioma are known to be poor prognostic factors in meningioma surgery. The authors conducted this study to analyze significant preoperative risk factors in elderly patients with skull base meningioma.
A total of 265 elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) with meningioma were surgically treated at the authors’ institute and affiliated hospitals between 2000 and 2016, and these cases were reviewed. Among them, 57 patients with skull base meningioma were evaluated. Among the various risk factors, the authors analyzed age, sex, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and tumor size, location, and pathology. Body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin were investigated as the frailty factors. The authors also reviewed 11 surgical studies of elderly patients ≥ 60 years old with meningioma.
The mean age was 72.4 ± 5.7 years, and 42 patients were female (73.6%). The mean size of meningioma was 36.6 ± 14.8 mm at the maximum diameter, and the mean follow-up period was 31.1 ± 31.5 months. (The continuous variables are expressed as the mean ± SD.) Histopathological investigation revealed a higher incidence (71.9%) of WHO Grade I. The rates of deterioration after surgery, at 3 months, and at 1 year were 33.3%, 37.3%, and 39.1%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed location, preoperative KPS score, BMI level 2, and serum albumin level (p = 0.010, 0.017, 0.0012, and 0.0019, respectively) to be poor prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that location (p = 0.038) and BMI (p = 0.035) were risk factors for KPS score deterioration immediately after surgery. According to the 11 papers reviewed, the median rate (25th–75th percentile) of skull base–related location was 43.5% (39.6–47.75); for asymptomatic status the mean was 24%; and for mortality at 3 months and 1 year the medians were 6.3% (0.7–7.1) and 8% (4.8–9.4), respectively.
Careful preoperative assessment based on the frailty concept was essential for better outcome in elderly patients with skull base meningioma. The BMI is appropriate as a quantitative factor for measure of frailty, particularly in elderly individuals with skull base meningioma. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to validate frailty as a preoperative risk factor. Not only patient selection but also surgical timing was an important factor.