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Sun-Chul Hwang, Soo-Bin Im, Bum-Tae Kim, and Won-Han Shin

Object

Twist-drill craniostomy (TDC) with closed-system drainage is an effective treatment option for chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). Because the entry point for TDC has not been described in a definitive area, the aim of this study was to define the optimal twist-drill entry point for CSDH.

Methods

The authors selected 40 random cases involving selective catheter angiography of the external carotid artery, regardless of study purpose, to evaluate the course of the middle meningeal artery. Furthermore, 50 skull radiographs were reviewed to assess the relation of the vascular groove to the coronal suture. On the basis of the radiological anatomical study, the authors propose that the normal TDC entry point should be 1 cm anterior to the coronal suture at the level of the superior temporal line (STL). Thirty patients with symptomatic CSDH were treated using TDC with closed-system drainage at the proposed entry point. The thicknesses of the hematoma and the skull were measured at the proposed entry point. The congruence between the proposed entry point and postoperative craniostomy was estimated and complications were evaluated.

Results

In the radiological study, all the branches of the middle meningeal artery ran posterior to the coronal suture and the vascular grooves were also located posterior to the coronal suture at the level of the STL. The average distance of the vascular grooves was 8.0 ±5.8 mm. Thirty-five procedures were performed. The coronal suture and the STL could be identified clearly on brain CT scans. The mean thickness of the skull and the CSDH at the proposed point was 8 mm (range 5–13 mm) and 20 mm (range 10–28 mm), respectively. All the TDCs except 1 were congruent with the preoperative brain CT scans. One CSDH recurred 1 month after the first operation and was revised using the same procedure. No other complications occurred.

Conclusions

One centimeter anterior to the coronal suture at the level of the STL is suitable as the normal entry point of the TDC for symptomatic CSDH. The thickness of the CSDH can be measured at this point on a preoperative brain CT scan. Furthermore, the entry point on the scalp can be accurately estimated using surface landmarks.

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Aditya Raj, Chong-Suh Lee, Jin-Sung Park, Byeong-Jik Kang, Tae Soo Shin, and Se-Jun Park

OBJECTIVE

Score on the proximal junctional kyphosis severity scale (PJKSS) has been validated to show good correlations with likelihood of revision surgery for proximal junctional failure (PJF) after surgical treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD). However, if the patient has progressive neurological deterioration, revision surgery should be considered regardless of severity based on PJKSS score. This study aimed to revalidate the correlation of PJKSS score with likelihood of revision surgery in patients with PJF but without neurological deficit. In addition, the authors provide the cutoff score on PJKSS that indicates need for revision surgery.

METHODS

A retrospective study was performed. Among 360 patients who underwent fusion of more than 4 segments including the sacrum, 83 patients who developed PJF without acute neurological deficit were included. Thirty patients underwent revision surgery (R group) and 53 patients did not undergo revision surgery (NR group). All components of PJKSS and variables other than those included in PJKSS were compared between groups. The cutoff score on PJKSS that indicated need for revision surgery was calculated with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression was performed to identify which variables were most predictive of revision surgery.

RESULTS

The mean patient age at the time of index surgery was 69.4 years, and the mean fusion length was 6.1 segments. All components of PJKSS, such as focal pain, instrumentation problem, change in kyphosis, fracture at the uppermost instrumented vertebra (UIV)/UIV+1, and level of UIV, were significantly different between groups. The average total PJKSS score was significantly greater in the R group than in the NR group (6.0 vs 3.9, p < 0.001). The calculated cutoff score was 4.5, with 70% sensitivity and specificity. There were no significant between-group differences in patient, surgical, and radiographic factors (other than the PJKSS components). Three factors were significantly associated with revision surgery on multivariate analysis: instrumentation problem (OR 8.160, p = 0.004), change in kyphosis (OR 4.809, p = 0.026), and UIV/UIV+1 fracture (OR 6.462, p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS

PJKSS score positively predicted need for revision surgery in patients with PJF who were neurologically intact. The calculated cutoff score on PJKSS that indicated need for revision surgery was 4.5, with 70% sensitivity and specificity. The factor most responsible for revision surgery was bony failure with > 20° focal kyphotic deformity. Therefore, early revision surgery should be considered for these patients even in the absence of neurological deficit.

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Se-Jun Park, Chong-Suh Lee, Jin-Sung Park, Tae-Hoon Yum, Tae Soo Shin, Ji-Woo Chang, and Keun-Ho Lee

OBJECTIVE

Iliac screw fixation and anterior column support are highly recommended to prevent lumbosacral pseudarthrosis after long-level adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. Despite modern instrumentation techniques, a considerable number of patients still experience nonunion at the lumbosacral junction. However, most previous studies evaluating nonunion relied only on plain radiographs and only assessed when the implant failures occurred. Therefore, using CT, it is important to know the prevalence after iliac fixation and to evaluate risk factors for nonunion at L5–S1.

METHODS

Seventy-seven patients who underwent ≥ 4-level fusion to the sacrum using iliac screws for ASD and completed a 2-year postoperative CT scan were included in the present study. All L5–S1 segments were treated by interbody fusion. Lumbosacral fusion status was evaluated on 2-year postoperative CT scans using Brantigan, Steffee, and Fraser criteria. Risk factors for nonunion were analyzed using patient, surgical, and radiographic factors. The metal failure and its association with fusion status at L5–S1 were evaluated.

RESULTS

Of the 77 patients, 12 (15.6%) showed nonunion at the lumbosacral junction on the 2-year CT scans. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression revealed that only higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade was a risk factor for nonunion (OR 25.6, 95% CI 3.196–205.048, p = 0.002). There were no radiographic parameters associated with fusion status at L5–S1. Lumbosacral junction rod fracture occurred more frequently in patients with nonunion than in patients with fusion (33.3% vs 6.2%, p = 0.038).

CONCLUSIONS

Although iliac screw fixation and anterior column support have been performed to prevent lumbosacral nonunion during ASD surgery, 15.6% of patients still showed nonunion on 2-year postoperative CT scans. High ASA grade was a significant risk factor for nonunion. Rod fracture between L5 and S1 occurred more frequently in the nonunion group.

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Byung-Soo Ko, Shin Jung, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Sub Moon, In-Young Kim, and Sam-Suk Kang

Preoperative diagnosis of neurenteric cysts can be difficult because the imaging findings of a neurenteric cyst may be similar to those of an arachnoid cyst. The authors report a case of a neurenteric cyst with xanthomatous changes in the prepontine area. This 4-year-old girl was admitted to their institution with intermittent neck pain and vomiting. Computed tomography showed a hypodense mass in the prepontine area. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic lesion measuring ~ 4 × 3 cm. The brainstem was displaced posteriorly, and the cisterns in both cerebellopontine angles were widened. The signal intensity of the cyst was similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid. Adjacent to the basilar artery there was a solid component of the mass that enhanced after administration of Gd. Intraoperatively, the authors found a cystic mass containing clear fluid with a yellowish solid nodule. On the basis of histopathological findings, the lesion was diagnosed as a neurenteric cyst with xanthomatous changes.

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Myung Soo Youn, Jong Ki Shin, Tae Sik Goh, Seung Min Son, and Jung Sub Lee

OBJECTIVE

Various minimally invasive techniques have been described for the decompression of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). However, few reports have described the results of endoscopic posterior decompression (EPD) with laminectomy performed under local anesthesia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of EPD performed under local anesthesia in patients with LSS and to compare the procedural outcomes in patients with and without preoperative spondylolisthesis.

METHODS

Fifty patients (28 female and 22 male) who underwent EPD under local anesthesia were included in this study. Patients were assessed before surgery and were followed up with regular outpatient visits (at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) outcome questionnaire. Radiological outcomes were assessed by measuring lumbar lordosis, disc-wedging angle, percentage of vertebral slippage, and disc height index on plain standing radiographs.

RESULTS

The VAS, ODI, and SF-36 scores were significantly improved at 1 month after surgery compared to the baseline mean values, and the improved scores were maintained over the 2-year follow-up period. Radiological progression was found in 2 patients during the follow-up period. Patients with and without preoperative spondylolisthesis had no significant differences in their clinical and radiological outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

EPD performed under local anesthesia is effective for LSS treatment. Similar favorable outcomes can be obtained in patients with and without preoperative spondylolisthesis using this approach.