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Naotaka Usui, Kiyohito Terada, Koichi Baba, Kazumi Matsuda, Takayasu Tottori, Shuichi Umeoka, Tadahiro Mihara, Fumihiro Nakamura, Keiko Usui, and Yushi Inoue


The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a short train of high-frequency (500 Hz) cortical stimulation to delineate the primary motor cortex (MI), supplementary motor area (SMA), primary somatosensory cortex (SI), supplementary sensory area (SSA), negative motor area (NMA), and supplementary negative motor area (SNMA) in patients with epilepsy who were undergoing functional mapping.


Seventeen patients were studied, all of whom underwent functional mapping using 50-Hz electrical stimulation. After these clinical evaluations, cortical stimulations with a short train of electrical pulses at 500 Hz were performed through subdural electrodes placed at the MI, SMA, SI, SSA, NMA, and SNMA, which had been identified by 50-Hz stimulation, and surrounding cortical areas, while surface electromyography readings were recorded.


Stimulation of the MI elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in contralateral muscles. Stimulation of the SMA also induced MEPs in contralateral muscles but with longer latencies compared with the MI stimulation. Stimulation of the SMA did not elicit MEPs in ipsilateral muscles. Stimulation of the SI, SSA, NMA, and SNMA did not induce MEPs in any muscle. In one patient, MEPs were elicited without seizure induction by 500-Hz stimulation of the electrodes, whereas a 50-Hz stimulation of the same electrodes induced his habitual seizures.


Extraoperative high-frequency stimulation with MEP monitoring is a useful complementary method for cortical mapping without inducing seizure. Stimulation of SMA induces MEPs in contralateral muscles, with longer latencies compared with the stimulation of MI. This finding may be useful for the differentiation between MI and SMA, especially in the foot motor areas.

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Hiroshi Hosoyama, Kazumi Matsuda, Tadahiro Mihara, Naotaka Usui, Koichi Baba, Yushi Inoue, Takayasu Tottori, Toshiaki Otsubo, Yumi Kashida, Koji Iida, Hirofumi Hirano, Ryosuke Hanaya, and Kazunori Arita


The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment outcomes and social engagement of patients who had undergone pediatric epilepsy surgery more than 10 years earlier.


Between 1983 and 2005, 110 patients younger than 16 years underwent epilepsy surgery at the National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders. The authors sent a questionnaire to 103 patients who had undergone follow-up for more than 10 years after surgery; 85 patients (82.5%) responded. The survey contained 4 categories: seizure outcome, use of antiepileptic drugs, social participation, and general satisfaction with the surgical treatment (resection of the epileptic focus, including 4 hemispherectomies). The mean patient age at the time of surgery was 9.8 ± 4.2 (SD) years, and the mean duration of postoperative follow-up was 15.4 ± 5.0 years. Of the 85 patients, 79 (92.9%) presented with a lesional pathology, such as medial temporal sclerosis, developmental/neoplastic lesions, focal cortical dysplasia, and gliosis in a single lobe.


For 65 of the 85 responders (76.5%), the outcome was recorded as Engel Class I (including 15 [93.8%] of 16 patients with medial temporal sclerosis, 20 [80.0%] of 25 with developmental/neoplastic lesions, and 27 [73.0%] of 37 with focal cortical dysplasia). Of these, 29 (44.6%) were not taking antiepileptic drugs at the time of our survey, 29 (44.6%) held full-time jobs, and 33 of 59 patients (55.9%) eligible to drive had a driver's license. Among 73 patients who reported their degree of satisfaction, 58 (79.5%) were very satisfied with the treatment outcome.


The seizure outcome in patients who underwent resective surgery in childhood and underwent followup for more than 10 years was good. Of 85 respondents, 65 (76.5%) were classified in Engel Class I. The degree of social engagement was relatively high, and the satisfaction level with the treatment outcome was also high. From the perspective of seizure control and social adaptation, resective surgery yielded longitudinal benefits in children with intractable epilepsy, especially those with a lesional pathology in a single lobe.

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Shuichi Umeoka, Kazumi Matsuda, Koichi Baba, Naotaka Usui, Takayasu Tottori, Kiyohito Terada, Keiko Usui, Fumihiro Nakamura, Yushi Inoue, Tateki Fujiwara, and Tadahiro Mihara


To provide greater accuracy in determining the epileptogenic zone during preoperative evaluation, the authors retrospectively examined 123I-iomazenil single-photon emission computed tomography (IMZ SPECT) studies obtained in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in whom there was no evidence of an abnormality on magnetic resonance (MR) images.


Twelve patients, seven with mesial TLE (MTLE) and five with lateral TLE (LTLE), satisfied the criteria for inclusion in the study. The IMZ SPECT findings in these patients were reviewed retrospectively, and a comparison was made between findings in patients with MTLE and those in patients with LTLE.


The IMZ SPECT studies demonstrated decreased IMZ uptake in the ipsilateral mesial temporal region and the anterobasal temporal lobe in all patients who had MTLE on only one side. On the other hand, IMZ SPECT examinations revealed low IMZ uptake in the ipsilateral lateral temporal lobe in four of five patients with LTLE in whom abnormal findings were restricted to the lateral neocortex. In the remaining patient with LTLE, abnormally low IMZ uptake was found in both mesial and lateral temporal lobes, although pure LTLE was diagnosed by an invasive electroencephalographic evaluation; this patient's habitual seizures continued even after temporal lobectomy, although his mesial structures were spared.


The authors report characteristics of IMZ SPECT findings that differed between patients with MTLE and those with LTLE. The IMZ SPECT examinations proved useful for preoperative evaluation and, to a certain extent, for discrimination between MTLE and LTLE in cases in which MR imaging demonstrated normal findings. The results of this study suggest that IMZ SPECT findings may reflect localization of the epileptogenic zone.