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Syed A. Quadri, John Capua, Vivek Ramakrishnan, Raed Sweiss, Marc Cabanne, Jerry Noel, Brian Fiani and Javed Siddiqi

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a very common surgery performed globally. Although a few cases of expectorating screws or extrusion of screws into the gastrointestinal tract through esophageal perforations have previously been reported, there has not been a case reporting pharyngeal perforation and entire cervical construct extrusion in the literature to date. In this report the authors present the first case involving the extrusion of an entire cervical construct via a tear in the posterior pharyngeal wall. An 81-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED) with a complaint of significant cervical pain 5 days after a fall due to a syncopal event. Radiological findings showed severe anterior subluxation of C-2 on C-3 with no spinal cord signal change noted. She underwent ACDF at the C2–3 level utilizing a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage, allograft, autograft, and a nontranslational plate with a locking apparatus and expanding screws. The screw placement was satisfactory on postoperative radiography and the Grade II spondylolisthesis of C-2 on C-3 was reduced appropriately with the surgery. The postoperative radiographs obtained demonstrated good instrumentation placement. Three and a half years later the patient returned to the ED having expectorated the entire anterior cervical construct. A CT scan demonstrated the C-2 and C-3 vertebral bodies to be fused posteriorly with an anterior erosive defect within the vertebral bodies and the anterior fusion hardware at the C2–3 level no longer identified. The fiberoptic laryngoscopy demonstrated a 1 × 1 cm area over the importation of the hypopharynx, above the glotic area. The Gastrografin swallowing test ruled out any esophageal tear or fistula and confirmed the presence of a large ulcer on the posterior wall of the oropharynx. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first ever reported case of a tear in the posterior pharyngeal wall along with extrusion of the entire cervical construct after ACDF. This case demonstrates a rare but potentially serious complication of ACDF. Based on the available literature, each case requires separate and distinct treatment from the others.

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Syed A. Quadri, Muhammad Waqas, Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Adnan Khan, Sajid S. Suriya, Mudassir Farooqui and Brian Fiani

Since Lynn and colleagues first described the use of focused ultrasound (FUS) waves for intracranial ablation in 1942, many strides have been made toward the treatment of several brain pathologies using this novel technology. In the modern era of minimal invasiveness, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) promises therapeutic utility for multiple neurosurgical applications, including treatment of tumors, stroke, epilepsy, and functional disorders. Although the use of HIFU as a potential therapeutic modality in the brain has been under study for several decades, relatively few neuroscientists, neurologists, or even neurosurgeons are familiar with it. In this extensive review, the authors intend to shed light on the current use of HIFU in different neurosurgical avenues and its mechanism of action, as well as provide an update on the outcome of various trials and advances expected from various preclinical studies in the near future. Although the initial technical challenges have been overcome and the technology has been improved, only very few clinical trials have thus far been carried out. The number of clinical trials related to neurological disorders is expected to increase in the coming years, as this novel therapeutic device appears to have a substantial expansive potential. There is great opportunity to expand the use of HIFU across various medical and surgical disciplines for the treatment of different pathologies. As this technology gains recognition, it will open the door for further research opportunities and innovation.

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M. Asif Taqi, Sajid S. Suriya, Ajeet Sodhi, Syed A. Quadri, Mudassir Farooqui, Atif Zafar and Martin M. Mortazavi

OBJECTIVE

Several retrospective studies have supported the use of conscious sedation (CS) over general anesthesia (GA) as the preferred methods of sedation for stroke thrombectomy, but a recent randomized controlled trial showed no difference in outcomes after CS or GA. The purpose of the Ideal Sedation for Stroke Thrombectomy (ISST) study was to evaluate the difference in time and outcomes in the reperfusion of anterior circulation in ischemic stroke using GA and monitored anesthesia care (MAC).

METHODS

The ISST study was a prospective, open-label registry. A total of 40 patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy for anterior circulation ischemic stroke were enrolled. Informed consent was obtained from each patient before enrollment. The primary endpoint included the interval between the patient’s arrival to the interventional radiology room and reperfusion time. Secondary endpoints were evaluated to estimate the effects on the outcome of patients between the 2 sedation methods.

RESULTS

Of the 40 patients, 32 received thrombectomy under MAC and 8 patients under GA. The male-to-female ratio was 18:14 in the MAC group and 4:4 in the GA group. The mean time from interventional radiology room arrival to reperfusion in the GA group was 2 times higher than that in the MAC group. Complete reperfusion (TICI grade 3) was achieved in more than 50% of patients in both groups. The mean modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months was < 2 in the MAC group and > 3 in the GA group (p = 0.021).

CONCLUSIONS

The findings from the pilot study showed a significantly shorter time interval between IR arrival and reperfusion and better outcomes in patients undergoing reperfusion for ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation using MAC compared with GA.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT03036631 (clinicaltrials.gov)