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Susumu Wakai

✓ A case is reported in which the Raimondi peritoneal catheter of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt spontaneously protruded from the abdominal wall of an 8-month-old infant.

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Lobar intracerebral hemorrhage

A clinical, radiographic, and pathological study of 29 consecutive operated cases with negative angiography

Susumu Wakai, Nahomi Kumakura and Masakatsu Nagai

✓ The authors operated consecutively on 50 patients with lobar intracerebral hemorrhage during a prospectively designed study period from January, 1986, to March, 1990. They investigated the correlations between the underlying causes and the clinicoradiographic features in 29 patients who showed no angiographic vascular abnormalities, in order to elucidate the operative indication for such cases. Patients with ruptured saccular aneurysm or trauma were not included in this study. There were 15 males and 14 females, ranging in age from 7 to 76 years (mean 52.4 years). Histological diagnoses of the surgical specimens were as follows: vascular malformation in nine cases (arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in six and cavernous malformation in three), microaneurysm in 11, cerebral amyloid angiopathy in six, and brain tumor in two; in the remaining case the cause was not verified histologically. The underlying cause was determined in 96.5% of cases. The mean patient age was lowest in the cavernous malformation group (27.0 years), followed by the AVM (45.8 years), microaneurysm (59.8 years), and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (70.0 years) groups. Four patients with vascular malformation (three AVM's and one cavernous malformation) had previous episodes of bleeding at the same site, whereas none of those with microaneurysms or cerebral amyloid angiopathy had such episodes. On computerized tomography (CT) scans, the round to oval hematoma was related to the presence of an AVM or cavernous malformation in contrast to microaneurysms and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Upon infusion of contrast material, variable enhancement was seen in five (two AVM's and three cavernous malformations) of the nine vascular malformations while no enhancement was noted in any patient with microaneurysm or cerebral amyloid angiopathy at the acute stage. Subarachnoid extension of the hematoma was associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy significantly more frequently than with AVM's (p < 0.05) and microaneurysms (p < 0.01).

The results suggest that clinicoradiographic pictures in cases with negative angiography are quite different among the three major pathological categories; namely, vascular malformation (AVM and cavernous malformation), microaneurysm, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. It is suggested that the underlying etiology of a given lobar intracerebral hemorrhage with negative angiography may be predicted by a combination of patient age, history of previous bleeding at the same site, hematoma shape, and subarachnoid extension of the hematoma on CT scans. Based upon these findings, the authors discuss operative indications for such cases.

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Yuhei Yoshimoto, Susumu Wakai and Masaaki Hamano

Object. The authors sought to investigate the mechanisms and pathophysiological effects of subdural fluid collection after surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

Methods. The authors retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 76 patients who had undergone craniotomy. The patients included 55 with aneurysmal SAH (SAH group) and 21 with unruptured aneurysms (non-SAH group) who were used as controls. Subdural fluid collection was more common in the SAH than in the non-SAH group (38% compared with 14%, p < 0.05). Although older patients appeared to be at greater risk for subdural fluid collection in both groups (p < 0.05), this condition developed even in relatively young patients with SAH. In the SAH group most subdural fluid collection was associated with ventricular dilation (81%), and a significant correlation was seen between fluid collection and the need for subsequent shunt placement (48% compared with 21%, p < 0.05). These results point to an association between hydrodynamic dysfunction and subdural fluid collection. The course of patients with subdural fluid collection varied from spontaneous resolution to normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Seven patients with persistent subdural collections underwent shunt placement (ventriculoperitoneal [VP] shunt in six and lumboperitoneal in one), which resulted in resolution of fluid collection in all seven.

Conclusions. The results indicate that for most patients in the SAH group, subdural fluid collection represented “external hydrocephalus” rather than simple “subdural hygroma.” Decreased absorption of cerebrospinal fluid because of SAH and surgically created tears in the arachnoid membrane communicating with the subdural space were factors in the development of external hydrocephalus. The authors believe that differentiating external hydrocephalus from subdural hygroma is extremely important, because VP shunt placement can be used to treat the former but could worsen the latter.

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Susumu Wakai, Satoshi Inoh, Yasuichi Ueda and Masakatsu Nagai

✓ The authors report six cases of hemangioblastoma presenting with apoplectic symptoms but with no history related to the tumor. In each case, computerized tomography disclosed an intraparenchymatous hemorrhage, which was located supratentorially in four and in the cerebellum in the remaining two. Angiography revealed an abnormal vascular blush in two cases, but no abnormal vessels or tumor blush in the other four. In all cases, a solid tumor with abnormal vessels, such as red veins and feeding arteries, was found within or adjacent to the hemorrhage at surgery. The possibility of hemangioblastoma should be kept in mind as a cause of intraparenchymatous hemorrhage, particularly subcortical. Evacuation of the hematoma should be carefully carried out, and the whole hematoma wall should be thoroughly investigated for abnormal vessels or a solid mass.

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Phyo Kim, Susumu Wakai, Seigo Matsuo, Takashi Moriyama and Takaaki Kirino

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the main constituent of bone mineral, and synthetic HA serves as a biocompatible and bioactive material. It permits bone growth on its surface and forms a union with the adjacent bone.

Object. The authors have developed implants made of porous HA, which they have used in more than 90 cases in the past 6 years to achieve cervical interbody fusion. The implants were designed to provide maximum durability, biomechanical stability, and alignment preservation and to be technically easy to use. The authors summarize their experience and results with the use of these implants.

Methods. The results of postoperative follow-up observation of 12 months or longer (mean 37.1 ± 2.4 months) are available in 70 patients with underlying disease including: spondylosis, disc extrusion, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL), hypertrophy of the PLL, and trauma. The patients' ages at the time of surgery ranged from 22 to 83 years (mean 50.6 ± 1.3 years).

Flexion—extension radiographs and tomograms, obtained 6 and 12 months after surgery and every year thereafter, were used to demonstrate solid fusion in all cases. Dislocation of the implant occurred in three patients who were treated during the early portion of the series. At 6 to 12 months after surgery, encasement of the implant and formation of union were observed. Normal lordosis, if present prior to surgery, was maintained postsurgery. No neurological deterioration related to the site of fusion occurred during the period of observation.

Conclusions. The authors conclude that satisfactory interbody fusion can be achieved by using HA implants, provided their design is appropriate and adequate surgical techniques are used.

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Yuhei Yoshimoto, Masaru Endo, Takashi Mori and Susumu Wakai

✓ A canine model of cortical vein occlusion was used to evaluate whether data obtained from monitoring venous stump pressure could help predict cerebral infarction after venous obstruction. Following bilateral parasagittal craniotomy, the cortical vein in each hemisphere was temporarily occluded and the increase in pressure was directly measured. Permanent venous obstruction was subsequently produced, and parenchymal brain damage 24 hours later was classified as: Stage 0, no parenchymal damage; Stage I, mild edema; Stage II, moderate parenchymal edema and/or ischemic changes in neurons; and Stage III, moderate-to-severe hemorrhage. The histological stages correlated closely with the rise in venous pressure: mean pressure increases (± standard deviation) were 5.5 ± 2.9 mm Hg in hemispheres graded as Stage 0 (12 hemispheres), 7.7 ± 3.2 mm Hg in those graded as Stage I (five), 11.2 ± 4.1 mm Hg in those classed as Stage II (five), and 16.4 ± 5 in those categorized as Stage III (seven). There were significant differences between Stages 0 and II (p < 0.01) and between Stages 0 and III (p < 0.001). Disruption of the blood-brain barrier as indicated by extravasation of Evans blue dye correlated well with the pressure increment. These results may indicate the threshold for injury after cortical venous occlusion. Venous stump pressure measurements obtained during a test occlusion may be a useful adjunct in predicting brain damage and may be helpful for intraoperative vessel selection for venous resection.