Arthur F. Battista, Menek Goldstein, Susumu Nakatani and Berta Anagnoste
Mami Yamasaki, Norio Arita, Shoju Hiraga, Shuichi Izumoto, Kazuyoshi Morimoto, Susumu Nakatani, Ken Fujitani, Noriko Sato and Toru Hayakawa
✓ To clarify the clinicopathological features of X-linked hydrocephalus, the authors studied 30 affected males from 15 families. In utero ultrasonography, performed at 21 to 40 weeks of gestation, revealed 18 fetuses with hydrocephalus. Computerized tomography (CT) revealed bilateral enlargement of the lateral ventricle with preponderant dilation of the posterior horn. In five patients with complete magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data, the most specific finding was localized atrophy of the anterior vermian lobe. Other MR imaging findings included a large massa intermedia, flat corpora quadrigemina, a small brainstem, and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral white matter. In all cases, the corpus callosum was hypoplastic or aplastic. The aqueduct was patent in four of five cases. Asymmetrical reduction of the ventricular size and a rippled ventricular wall were characteristic postshunt CT findings. Progressive macrocephaly and symptoms due to increased intracranial pressure were ameliorated by the shunt; however, the neurological outcome was not improved by shunting. Of 14 patients who lived to be between 2 and 18 years of age, all are retarded. These results indicate that X-linked hydrocephalus is not a disease of simple ventriculomegaly due to aqueduct stenosis alone but involves other complicated central nervous system anomalies.
Report of three cases
Hideo Otsuki, Susumu Nakatani, Mami Yamasaki, Akira Kinoshita, Fuminori Iwamoto and Naoki Kagawa
✓ The result of combining the ultrasound Coded Excitation method and an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA), the Coded Harmonic Angio (CHA) technique provides arterial images with exceptional spatial, temporal, and contrast resolution that are comparable to those produced by conventional digital subtraction angiography. The authors report on their experience with intraoperative ultrasound arteriography performed using the transdural CHA technique in three patients: one harboring a meningioma, another with a middle cerebral artery aneurysm, and a third with an arteriovenous malformation. The present study demonstrates how intraoperative cerebral ultrasound arteriography can be applied to assess the adequacy of neurovascular procedures without the presence of an experienced operator.