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Dae-Jean Jo, Eun-Min Seo, Ki-Tack Kim, Sung-Min Kim and Sang-Hun Lee

Spondyloptosis is complete dislocation of the L-5 vertebral body on the sacrum anteriorly. Its optimal treatment is still controversial. In particular, choosing the optimal surgical technique is difficult in the osteoporotic elderly patient given the high incidence of instrumentation failure, pseudarthrosis, progressive slippage, and severe sagittal imbalance. The authors of this report used partial reduction and pedicular transvertebral screw fixation of the lumbosacral junction for the treatment of spondyloptosis in an osteoporotic elderly patient.

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Jinho Kim, Sung-Hun Lee, Ji Hwan Jang, Mee-Seon Kim, Eun Hee Lee and Young Zoon Kim

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the epigenetic and prognostic roles of an H3K4 methyltransferase (mixed lineage leukemia 4 [MLL4]) and H3K27 demethylase (ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat gene on X chromosome [UTX]) in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) who were treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or both after resection. In addition, the authors examined methylation at the promoter of the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene and other prognostic factors predicting length of PFS and OS in these patients.

METHODS

The medical records of 76 patients having a new diagnosis of histologically ascertained GBM in the period of January 2002 to December 2013 at the authors' institution were retrospectively reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining for MLL4 and UTX was performed on archived paraffin-embedded tissues obtained by biopsy or resection. The methylation status of the MGMT promoter in these tissues was determined by methylation-specific PCR analysis.

RESULTS

During the follow-up period (mean length 18.1 months, range 4.1–43.5 months), 68 (89.5%) of the patients died. The MGMT promoter was methylated in 49 patients (64.5%) and unmethylated in 27 (35.5%). The immunoreactivity pattern of UTX was identical to that of MLL4; increased expression of these 2 proteins was observed in samples from 34 patients (44.7%) and decreased expression in 42 patients (55.3%). The mean length of PFS was 9.2 months (95% CI 6.8–11.6 months). Extent of surgery, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, and methylation status of the MGMT promoter were all associated with increased PFS in the multivariate analysis of factors predicting PFS. The mean length of OS was 18.6 months (95% CI 14.3–22.9 months). Patient age (p = 0.004), WHO performance status score (p = 0.019), extent of surgery (p = 0.007), RPA class (p = 0.036), methylation status of the MGMT promoter (p = 0.010), and increased expression of UTX-MLL4 (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with increased OS in multivariate analysis. Interestingly, in patients with an unmethylated MGMT promoter, immunoreactivity of UTX-MLL4 was not associated with changes in OS (p = 0.350). However, in the patients with a methylated MGMT promoter, increased UTX-MLL4 expression was strongly associated with increased OS (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study suggest that increased expression of UTX-MLL4 positively influences the outcome of patients with GBM having a methylated MGMT promoter. Therefore, UTX-MLL4 immunoreactivity could be a useful predictor of the response to conventional treatment with radiotherapy or chemotherapy among GBM patients whose tumors have a methylated MGMT promoter.

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Seungcheol Lee, Ji Hoon Kang, Umesh Srikantha, Il-Tae Jang and Sung-Hun Oh

Object

Extraforaminal compression of the L-5 nerve encompasses multiple pathological entities and may result from disc herniations as well as bony (osteophytes or sacral ala) or ligamentous (sacroiliac ligament and lumbosacral band) compression. Several other factors, such as disc space collapse or coronal wedging, can also contribute to narrowing of the extraforaminal space. The extraforaminal space at L5–S1 has unique anatomical features compared with the upper lumbar levels, which makes surgical access to this region difficult. Minimally invasive techniques offer easier access to the region. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contributing factors for extraforaminal compression of the L-5 nerve and assess clinical outcome following surgical decompression.

Methods

Fifty-two consecutive patients who underwent a minimally invasive far-lateral approach for extraforaminal compression of the L-5 nerve were retrospectively analyzed for clinical data, outcomes, and imaging features (type of disc prolapse, coronal wedging, degree of disc and facet degeneration, facet tropism, foraminal stenosis, osteophytes, and adjacent-level disease). The authors describe the surgical technique used in this study.

Results

The mean age of the patient sample was 57 years. Sixteen patients each had an extraforaminal ruptured disc or contained protrusion, and the remaining 20 patients had disc protrusions extending into the foraminal region or the lateral recess. Associated foraminal stenosis was found in 38.5%, and adjacent-level stenosis was noted in 22 cases (42.3%) and spondylolisthesis in 4 (7.7%). Osteophytes were noted in 18 cases. A coronal wedging angle ≥ 3° was found in 46.2%, and the laterality of wedging corresponded to the symptomatic side in 91% of cases. Fifteen patients (28.8%) complained of postoperative dysesthesias, which completely resolved in all cases within 6 months. The incidence of dysesthesias was more common in the ruptured disc group. There were no differences in clinical outcome among the different types of disc prolapses. The mean preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale scores were 7.6 and 3.6, respectively. The mean preoperative and postoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores were 6.4 and 13.8, respectively. The mean JOA recovery rate was 86.1%. According to the Macnab functional grading system, 96% of the patients had excellent or good grades at follow-up.

Conclusions

A minimally invasive far-lateral approach to L5–S1 requires a good understanding of the regional anatomy and can provide good to excellent clinical results in properly selected cases. This approach is effective in decompressing the far-lateral and foraminal zones. Adequate preoperative diagnosis and tailoring the surgical procedure to address the relevant compressive element in each case is essential to achieving good clinical results.

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Sung Hun Park, Woo Min Park, Cheul Woong Park, Kwan Soo Kang, Young Keun Lee and Sang Rak Lim

Object

The purpose of this study was to determine whether anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) followed by percutaneous translaminar facet screw fixation is effective in elderly patients with degenerative spinal disease.

Methods

Twenty-nine patients > 60 years old who underwent ALIF with percutaneous translaminar facet screw fixation from January to June 2004 were studied. The radiological and clinical data of these patients were collected and analyzed. The mean follow-up period was 14.6 months (range 12–17 months).

Results

The mean preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 6- and 12-month postoperative posterior disc heights were 7.1, 11.6, 9.8, and 9.8 mm, respectively. Subsidences of posterior disc height > 20% developed in 9 patients (30%). The significant risk factor for subsidence was found to be 2-level operations (p = 0.023). The mean preoperative Oswestry Disability Index score and visual analog scale scores for the back and leg were 24.4, 6.6, and 7.5, respectively, and improved postoperatively to 14.2, 1.5, and 1.8, respectively.

Conclusions

Minimally invasive ALIF followed by percutaneous translaminar facet screw fixation was performed as a minimally invasive surgical technique in elderly patients. However, in certain circumstances such as multilevel operations or in patients with severe osteoporosis, significant cage subsidence can develop.

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Min Soo Kim, Kyu Hong Kim, Eun Hee Lee, Young Min Lee, Sung-Hun Lee, Hyung Dong Kim and Young Zoon Kim

Object

The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of certain cell-cycle regulatory proteins in the recurrence of atypical meningiomas. These proteins were analyzed with immunohistochemical staining to identify predisposing factors for the recurrence of atypical meningiomas.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with atypical meningiomas diagnosed in the period from January 2000 to June 2012 at the Department of Neurosurgery at Samsung Changwon Hospital and Dong-A University Medical Center. Clinical data included patient sex and age at the time of surgery, presenting symptoms at diagnosis, location and size of tumor, extent of surgery, use of postoperative radiotherapy, duration of follow-up, and recurrence. Immunohistochemical staining for cell-cycle regulatory proteins (p16, p15, p21, p27, cyclin-dependent kinase [CDK] 4 and 6, phosphorylated retinoblastoma [pRB] protein, and cyclin D1) and proliferative markers (MIB-1 antigen, mitosis, and p53) was performed on archived paraffin-embedded tissues obtained during resection. The recurrence rate and time to recurrence were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results

Of the 67 atypical meningiomas eligible for analysis, 26 (38.8%) recurred during the follow-up period (mean duration 47.7 months, range 8.4–132.1 months). Immunohistochemically, there was overstaining for p16 in 44 samples (65.7%), for p15 in 21 samples (31.3%), for p21 in 25 samples (37.3%), for p27 in 32 samples (47.8%), for CDK4 in 38 samples (56.7%), for CDK6 in 26 samples (38.8%), for pRB protein in 42 samples (62.7%), and for cyclin D1 in 49 samples (73.1%). Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional-hazards regression model showed that incomplete resection (HR 4.513, p < 0.001); immunohistochemical understaining for p16 (HR 3.214, p < 0.001); immunohistochemical overstaining for CDK6 (HR 3.427, p < 0.001), pRB protein (HR 2.854, p = 0.008), and p53 (HR 2.296, p = 0.040); and increased MIB-1 labeling index (HR 2.665, p = 0.013) and mitotic index (HR 2.438, p = 0.024) predicted the recurrence of atypical meningiomas after resection.

Conclusions

Findings in this study indicated that p16, CDK6, and pRB protein were associated with the recurrence of atypical meningiomas.

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Ji Yeoun Lee, Sangjoon Chong, Young Hun Choi, Ji Hoon Phi, Jung-Eun Cheon, Seung-Ki Kim, Sung Hye Park, In-One Kim and Kyu-Chang Wang

OBJECTIVE

Since the entity limited dorsal myeloschisis (LDM) was proposed, numerous confusing clinical cases have been renamed according to the embryopathogenesis. However, clinical application of this label appears to require some clarification with regard to pathology. There have been cases in which all criteria for the diagnosis of LDM were met except for the presence of a neural component in the stalk, an entity the authors call “probable” LDM. The present study was performed to meticulously review these cases and suggest that a modified surgical strategy using limited laminectomy is sufficient to achieve the surgical goal of untethering.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings, operative notes, and pathology reports of spinal dysraphism patients with subcutaneous stalk lesions who had presented to their institution between 2010 and 2014.

RESULTS

Among 33 patients with LDM, 13 had the typical nonsaccular lesions with simple subcutaneous stalks connecting the skin opening to the spinal cord. Four cases had “true” LDM meeting all criteria for diagnosis, including pathological confirmation of CNS tissue by immunohistochemical staining with glial fibrillary acidic protein. There were also 9 cases in which all clinical, imaging, and surgical findings were compatible with LDM, but the “neural” component in the resected stalk was not confirmed. For all the cases, limited exposure of the stalk was done and satisfactory untethering was achieved.

CONCLUSIONS

One can speculate based on the initial error of embryogenesis that if the entire stalk were traced to the point of insertion on the cord, the neural component would be proven. However, this would require an extended level of laminectomy/laminotomy, which may be unnecessary, at least with regard to the completeness of untethering. Therefore, the authors propose that for some selected cases of LDM, a minimal extent of laminectomy may suffice for untethering, although it may be insufficient for diagnosing a true LDM.

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Hun Ho Park, Min Chul Oh, Eui Hyun Kim, Chan Yun Kim, Sun Ho Kim, Kyu-Sung Lee and Jong Hee Chang

OBJECT

The authors investigated the value of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in predicting visual outcome after surgery for parachiasmal meningioma.

METHODS

Forty-nine eyes of 25 patients who underwent craniotomy and resection of a parachiasmal meningioma were analyzed retrospectively. Visual parameters including visual field (VF) (recorded as the mean deviation [MD]), visual acuity (VA), and RNFL thickness (via optical coherence tomography) were measured before and 1 week, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Postoperative visual outcome was compared among the patients with a thin or normal RNFL. A separate analysis of data pertaining to 22 eyes of 13 patients with severe VF defects (MD ≤ −10 dB) was performed to compare visual outcome for those with a thin or normal RNFL.

RESULTS

Of the 23 eyes that showed VF improvement, 22 (95.7%) had normal RNFL thickness. The positive predictive value of normal RNFL thickness for VF improvement was 78.6%. The VF of patients with normal RNFL thickness improved in 6 months and continued improving 1 year after surgery (MD −5.9 dB before surgery, −5.5 dB 1 week after surgery, −2.8 dB 6 months after surgery [p < 0.01], and −1.1 dB 1 year after surgery [p < 0.01]). In contrast, those with a thin preoperative RNFL showed deterioration at first and then slower, worse visual recovery after surgery (MD −18.1 dB before surgery, −22.4 dB 1 week after surgery, −21.2 dB 6 months after surgery, and −19.1 dB 1 year after surgery). VA also showed significant progress 6 months after surgery in patients with normal RNFL thickness (0.6 before surgery, 0.7 one week after surgery, 0.9 six months after surgery [p = 0.025], and 0.9 one year after surgery [p = 0.050]) compared to those with a thin RNFL (0.3 before surgery, 0.2 one week after surgery, 0.3 six months after surgery, and 0.4 one year after surgery). Preoperative differences in VF MD and VA were noted between the 2 groups (p < 0.01). Even patients with severe VF defects and normal RNFL thickness improved by 11.1 dB by 1 year after surgery compared with patients with a thin RNFL (−0.01 dB) (p < 0.01). Patients with normal RNFL thickness also did better in VA improvement (from 0.7 to 1.1) than those with a thin RNFL (from 0.2 to 0.3), but these results were not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS

RNFL thickness measured by optical coherence tomography has significant value as a prognostic factor of postoperative visual recovery for parachiasmal meningioma. Patients with normal RNFL thickness before surgery are more likely to have visual improvement after surgery than patients with a thin RNFL.

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Letter to the Editor

Small cerebellopontine angle cisterns in patients with trigeminal neuralgia

Maud Parise, Carlos Telles Ribeiro, Maurice Vincent and Emerson Gasparetto

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Dong-Hun Kang, Byung Moon Kim, Ji Hoe Heo, Hyo Suk Nam, Young Dae Kim, Yang-Ha Hwang, Yong-Won Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Hyo Sung Kwak, Hong Gee Roh, Young-Jun Lee and Sang Heum Kim

OBJECTIVE

The role of the balloon guide catheter (BGC) has not been evaluated in contact aspiration thrombectomy (CAT) for acute stroke. Here, the authors aimed to test whether the BGC was associated with recanalization success and good functional outcome in CAT.

METHODS

All patients who had undergone CAT as the first-line treatment for anterior circulation intracranial large vessel occlusion were retrospectively identified from prospectively maintained registries for six stroke centers. The patients were dichotomized into BGC utilization and nonutilization groups. Clinical findings, procedural details, and recanalization success rates were compared between the two groups. Whether the BGC was associated with recanalization success and functional outcome was assessed.

RESULTS

A total of 429 patients (mean age 68.4 ± 11.4 years; M/F ratio 215:214) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A BGC was used in 45.2% of patients. The overall recanalization and good outcome rates were 80.2% and 52.0%, respectively. Compared to the non-BGC group, the BGC group had a significantly reduced number of CAT passes (2.6 ± 1.6 vs 3.4 ± 1.5), shorter puncture-to-recanalization time (56 ± 27 vs 64 ± 35 minutes), lower need for the additional use of thrombolytics (1.0% vs 8.1%), and less embolization to a distal or different site (0.5% vs 3.4%). The BGC group showed significantly higher final (89.2% vs 72.8%) and first-pass (24.2% vs 8.1%) recanalization success rates. After adjustment for potentially associated factors, BGC utilization remained independently associated with recanalization (OR 4.171, 95% CI 1.523–11.420) and good functional outcome (OR 2.103, 95% CI 1.225–3.612).

CONCLUSIONS

BGC utilization significantly increased the final and first-pass recanalization rates and remained independently associated with recanalization success and good functional outcome.