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Kuo-Chuan Wang, Sung-Chun Tang, Jing-Er Lee, Dar-Ming Lai, Sheng-Jean Huang, Sung-Tsang Hsieh, Jiann-Shing Jeng and Yong-Kwang Tu


Experimental studies have demonstrated the crucial role of posthemorrhagic erythrocyte catabolism in the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors of this study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of a series of CSF biomarkers linked to heme metabolism in SAH patients.


Patients with Fisher Grade III aneurysmal SAH undergoing early aneurysm obliteration were enrolled. The levels of heme oxygenase–1 (HO-1), oxyhemoglobin, ferritin, and bilirubin in intrathecal CSF were measured on the 7th day posthemorrhage. The associations of functional outcome with clinical and CSF parameters were analyzed.


The study included 41 patients (mean age 59 ± 14 years; 16 male, 25 female), 17 (41.5%) of whom had an unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score ≤ 3) 3 months after SAH. In terms of the clinical data, age > 60 years, admission World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grade ≥ III, and the presence of acute hydrocephalus were independent factors associated with an unfavorable outcome. After adjusting for clinical parameters, a higher level of HO-1 appeared to be the most significant CSF parameter related to an unfavorable outcome among all tested CSF molecules (OR 0.934, 95% CI 0.883–0.989, p = 0.018). Further analysis using a generalized additive model identified a cutoff HO-1 value of 81.2 μM, with higher values predicting unfavorable outcome (82.4% accuracy).


The authors propose that the level of intrathecal CSF HO-1 at Day 7 post-SAH can be an effective outcome indicator in patients with Fisher Grade III aneurysmal SAH.

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Shin-Joe Yeh, Sung-Chun Tang, Li-Kai Tsai, Chung-Wei Lee, Ya-Fang Chen, Hon-Man Liu, Shih-Hung Yang, Yu-Lin Hsieh, Meng-Fai Kuo and Jiann-Shing Jeng


Pediatric and adult patients with moyamoya disease experience similar clinical benefits from indirect revascularization surgeries, but there are still debates about age-related angiographic differences of the collaterals established after surgery. The goal of this study was to assess age-related differences on ultrasonography before and after indirect revascularization surgeries in moyamoya patients, focusing on some ultrasonographic parameters known to be correlated with the collaterals supplied by the external carotid artery (ECA).


The authors prospectively included moyamoya patients (50 and 26 hemispheres in pediatric and adult patients, respectively) who would undergo indirect revascularization surgery. Before surgery and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery, the patients underwent ultrasonographic examinations. The ultrasonographic parameters included peak-systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistance index (RI), and flow volume (FV) measured in the ECA, superficial temporal artery (STA), and internal carotid artery on the operated side. The mean values, absolute changes, and percentage changes of these parameters were compared between the pediatric and adult patients. Logistic regression analysis was used to clarify the determinants affecting postoperative EDV changes in the STA.


Before surgery, the adult patients had mean higher EDV and lower RI in the STA and ECA than the pediatric group (all p < 0.05). After surgery, the pediatric patients had greater changes (absolute and percentage changes) in the PSV, EDV, RI, and FV in the STA and ECA (all p < 0.05). The factors affecting postoperative EDV changes in the STA at 6 months were age (p = 0.006) and size of the revascularization area (i.e., revascularization in more than the temporal region vs within the temporal region; p = 0.009). Pediatric patients who received revascularization procedures in more than the temporal region had higher velocities (PSV and EDV) in the STA than those who received revascularization within the temporal region (p < 0.05 at 1–6 months), but such differences were not observed in the adult group.


The greater changes of these parameters in the STA and ECA in pediatric patients than in adults after indirect revascularization surgeries indicated that pediatric patients might have a greater increase of collaterals postoperatively than adults. Pediatric patients who undergo revascularization in more than the temporal region might have more collaterals than those who undergo revascularization within the temporal region.