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Dong Gyu Kim, Jong Soo Kim, Je G. Chi, Sung Hye Park, Hee-Won Jung, Kil Soo Choi and Dae Hee Han

✓ The authors analyzed 13 central neurocytomas diagnosed at Seoul National University Hospital between January 1982 and December 1993 to clarify the proliferative potential and biological behavior of these tumors. The tumor was confined to the lateral and third ventricles in 12 cases and in one case extended from the posterior thalamus to the body and trigone area of the lateral ventricle. In all 13 cases, typical clinical and radiological findings were observed, and histological diagnosis was performed via craniotomy. The diagnosis was made using light microscopic examination, immunohistochemical staining for neuronal markers, and electron microscopic findings of neuronal differentiation. One patient died due to tumor progression with recurrence 26 months after subtotal removal plus radiation therapy. Another patient had a recurrence 18 months after total tumor removal. The remaining 11 patients are free of recurrent tumor after a follow-up period that ranged from 14 to 109 months (median 50 months). To predict the proliferative potential, immunoreactivity to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), silver colloid staining for nucleolar organizing regions (AgNORs), and DNA flow cytometry were performed in 10 of the 13 cases. The proportion of PCNA-positive cells was less than 1% in all cases and the AgNORs score ranged from 1.11 to 2.0 (mean 1.67). The DNA flow cytometry revealed diploidy in all cases and the calculated proliferation index ranged from 5.1% to 9.6% (mean 7.8%). The one case of tumor recurrence, in which the authors performed the study of proliferative potential, and another case that demonstrated mild nuclear pleomorphism also showed low percentages of PCNA-positive cells, low AgNORs scores, and diploidy in DNA flow cytometry.

It is suggested that most central neurocytomas follow a benign clinical course with low proliferative potential assessed by PCNA, AgNORs, and DNA flow cytometry; however, recurrence is possible within a relatively short time period.

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Dae Hee Han, Dong Gyu Kim, Je G. Chi, Sung Hye Park, Hee-Won Jung and Young Gyu Kim

✓ The authors present the clinical, radiological, pathological features, and autopsy findings of a patient with malignant triton tumor of the acoustic nerve, which probably arose from a pre-existing acoustic schwannoma. The term “malignant triton tumor” is applied to malignant schwannomas with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. A cerebellopontine angle tumor with spinal drop metastasis occurred in this patient 10 months after near-total removal of the original tumor.

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Jin-Young Hwang, Seong-Won Min, Young-Tae Jeon, Jung-Won Hwang, Sang-Heon Park, Jin-Hee Kim and Sung-Hee Han

OBJECT

Spinal cord ischemia remains a serious complication of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. Coenzyme Q10, a potent antioxidant, has been reported to exert a neuroprotective effect. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of coenzyme Q10 pretreatment on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury.

METHODS

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either 300 mg/kg coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 group, n = 12) or saline (control and sham groups, n = 12 for each group) for 5 days before ischemia. Spinal cord ischemia was induced in the control and CoQ10 groups. Neurological function was assessed using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) motor rating scale until 7 days after reperfusion, and then the spinal cord was harvested for histopathological examinations and an evaluation of malondialdehyde level.

RESULTS

On post-reperfusion Day 1, the CoQ10 group showed higher BBB scores compared with those in the control group, although the difference was not significant. However, on Day 2, the CoQ10 group showed a significantly higher BBB score than the control group (14.0 [10.3–15.0] vs 8.0 [5.0–9.8], median [IQR], respectively; p = 0.021), and this trend was maintained until Day 7 (17.5 [16.0–18.0] vs 9.0 [6.5–12.8], respectively; p < 0.001). Compared with the control group, the CoQ10 group had more normal motor neurons (p = 0.003), fewer apoptotic changes (p = 0.003) and a lower level of tissue malondialdehyde (p = 0.024).

CONCLUSIONS

Pretreatment with 300 mg/kg coenzyme Q10 resulted in significantly improved neurological function and preservation of more normal motor neurons.

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Arman Jahangiri, Jeffrey Wagner, Sung Won Han, Corinna C. Zygourakis, Seunggu J. Han, Mai T. Tran, Liane M. Miller, Maxwell W. Tom, Sandeep Kunwar, Lewis S. Blevins Jr. and Manish K. Aghi

Object

While transsphenoidal surgery is associated with low morbidity, the degree to which morbidity increases after reoperation remains unclear. The authors determined the morbidity associated with repeat versus initial transsphenoidal surgery after 1015 consecutive operations.

Methods

The authors conducted a 5-year retrospective review of the first 916 patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery at their institution after a pituitary center of expertise was established, and they analyzed morbidities.

Results

The authors analyzed 907 initial and 108 repeat transsphenoidal surgeries performed in 916 patients (9 initial surgeries performed outside the authors' center were excluded). The most common diagnoses were endocrine inactive (30%) or active (36%) adenomas, Rathke's cleft cysts (10%), and craniopharyngioma (3%). Morbidity of initial surgery versus reoperation included diabetes insipidus ([DI] 16% vs 26%; p = 0.03), postoperative hyponatremia (20% vs 16%; p = 0.3), new postoperative hypopituitarism (5% vs 8%; p = 0.3), CSF leak requiring repair (1% vs 4%; p = 0.04), meningitis (0.4% vs 3%; p = 0.02), and length of stay ([LOS] 2.8 vs 4.5 days; p = 0.006). Of intraoperative parameters and postoperative morbidities, 1) some (use of lumbar drain and new postoperative hypopituitarism) did not increase with second or subsequent reoperations (p = 0.3–0.9); 2) some (DI and meningitis) increased upon second surgery (p = 0.02–0.04) but did not continue to increase for subsequent reoperations (p = 0.3–0.9); 3) some (LOS) increased upon second surgery and increased again for subsequent reoperations (p < 0.001); and 4) some (postoperative hyponatremia and CSF leak requiring repair) did not increase upon second surgery (p = 0.3) but went on to increase upon subsequent reoperations (p = 0.001–0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed that operation number, but not sex, age, pathology, radiation therapy, or lesion size, increased the risk of CSF leak, meningitis, and increased LOS. Separate analysis of initial versus repeat transsphenoidal surgery on the 2 most common benign pituitary lesions, pituitary adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts, revealed that the increased incidence of DI and CSF leak requiring repair seen when all pathologies were combined remained significant when analyzing only pituitary adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts (DI, 13% vs 35% [p = 0.001]; and CSF leak, 0.3% vs 9% [p = 0.0009]).

Conclusions

Repeat transsphenoidal surgery was associated with somewhat more frequent postoperative DI, meningitis, CSF leak requiring repair, and greater LOS than the low morbidity characterizing initial transsphenoidal surgery. These results provide a framework for neurosurgeons in discussing reoperation for pituitary disease with their patients.

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Dong Gyu Kim, Je G. Chi, Sung Hye Park, Kee Hyun Chang, Sun Ho Lee, Hee-Won Jung, Hyun Jib Kim, Byung-Kyu Cho, Kil Soo Choi and Dae Hee Han

✓ A retrospective analysis of seven patients with intraventricular neurocytoma is presented. Patient age at diagnosis ranged from 15 to 38 years (mean 24.6 years) and the male:female ratio was 6:1. Raised intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus was the main cause of the clinical manifestations. An isodense mass with multiple intratumoral cysts and homogeneous contrast enhancement was the characteristic computerized tomography finding. The lesions commonly involved the lateral ventricle with or without extension to the third ventricle. Cerebral angiography showed homogeneous vascular staining in five patients. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass isointense with the cerebral cortex on both T1 and T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid-enhanced images showed homogeneous enhancement. Total removal of the tumor was possible in four patients. Pathologically, six cases were initially diagnosed as oligodendroglioma and the remaining case as ependymoma. However, immunohistochemical studies demonstrated strong positivity for neuron-specific enolase in all seven cases and for synaptophysin in five cases. On electron microscopy, three cases showed well-defined neurosecretory granules and 10-nm microtubules in their cytoplasm and cytoplasmic processes. One patient developed a recurrent tumor 18 months after surgery. The remaining six patients are free of recurrent tumors at 2 to 62 months after surgery. It is suggested that neurocytoma must be included in the differential diagnosis of intraventricular lesions, and that electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies should be undertaken.

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Arman Jahangiri, Jeffrey R. Wagner, Sung Won Han, Mai T. Tran, Liane M. Miller, Rebecca Chen, Maxwell W. Tom, Lauren R. Ostling, Sandeep Kunwar, Lewis Blevins and Manish K. Aghi

OBJECT

The impact of transsphenoidal surgery for nonfunctional pituitary adenomas (NFAs) on preoperative hypopituitarism relative to the incidence of new postoperative endocrine deficits remains unclear. The authors investigated rates of hypopituitarism resolution and development after transsphenoidal surgery.

METHODS

Over a 5-year period, 305 transsphenoidal surgeries for NFAs performed at The California Center for Pituitary Disorders were retrospectively reviewed.

RESULTS

Patients with preoperative endocrine deficits (n = 153, 50%) were significantly older (mean age 60 vs 54 years; p = 0.004), more frequently male (65% vs 44%; p = 0.0005), and had larger adenomas (2.4 cm vs 2.1 cm; p = 0.02) than patients without preoperative deficits (n = 152, 50%). Of patients with preoperative endocrine deficits, 53% exhibited symptoms. Preoperative deficit rates were 26% for the thyroid axis; 20% and 16% for the male and female reproductive axes, respectively; 13% for the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)/cortisol axis, and 19% for the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis. Laboratory normalization rates 6 weeks and 6 months after surgery without hormone replacement were 26% and 36% for male and 13% and 13% for female reproductive axes, respectively; 30% and 49% for the thyroid axis; 3% and 3% for the cortisol axis; and 9% and 22% for the IGF-1 axis (p < 0.05). New postoperative endocrine deficits occurred in 42 patients (13.7%). Rates of new deficits by axes were: male reproductive 3% (n = 9), female reproductive 1% (n = 4), thyroid axis 3% (n = 10), cortisol axis 6% (n = 19), and GH/IGF-1 axis 4% (n = 12). Patients who failed to exhibit any endocrine normalization had lower preoperative gland volumes than those who did not (0.24 cm3 vs 0.43 cm3, respectively; p < 0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed that no variables predicted new postoperative deficits or normalization of the female reproductive, cortisol, and IGF-1 axes. However, increased preoperative gland volume and younger age predicted the chances of a patient with any preoperative deficit experiencing normalization of at least 1 axis. Younger age and less severe preoperative hormonal deficit predicted normalization of the thyroid and male reproductive axes (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

After NFA resection, endocrine normalization rates in this study varied with the hormonal axis and were greater than the incidence of new endocrine deficits. Low preoperative gland volume precluded recovery. Patient age and the severity of the deficiency influenced the recovery of the thyroid and male reproductive axes, the most commonly impaired axes and most likely to normalize postoperatively. This information can be of use in counseling patients with hypopituitarism who undergo NFA surgery.